Chapter 21 - Structure of the Cardiovascular System...

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Structure of the Cardiovascular System Composed of three parts – Heart – Blood – Blood vessels Heart pumps blood into arteries, which are connected to veins via capillaries – Arteries carry blood away from the heart – Veins carry blood to the heart Blood composition – Serum – liquid part of blood – Formed elements – erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets
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Structure of the Cardiovascular System
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Structure of the Cardiovascular System Movement of Blood and Lymph – The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs • Oxygen enters blood and carbon dioxide diffuses out – Oxygenated blood returns to the heart through the left ventricle and then to the arteries and capillaries – Capillaries carry blood to the surrounding tissues and also leak fluid that is picked up by the lymphatic vessels
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Bacterial Cardiovascular and Systemic Diseases Septicemia, Bacteremia, and Toxemia – Septicemia • Presence of any microbial infection of the blood that produces illness – Bacteremia • Bacterial septicemia that is often harmless – Toxemia • Release of bacterial toxins into the blood – Lymphangitis • Infection and inflammation of the lymphatic vessels
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Bacterial Cardiovascular and Systemic Diseases Septicemia, Bacteremia, and Toxemia – Signs and symptoms • Fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, malaise • Septic shock can develop rapidly • Small hemorrhagic lesions called petechiae can develop • Osteomyelitis can occur when bacteria invade the bones • Toxemia symptoms vary depending on the toxin – Exotoxins – released from living microorganisms – Endotoxin – released from Gram-negative bacteria
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Bacterial Cardiovascular and Systemic Diseases Septicemia, Bacteremia, and Toxemia – Pathogens and virulence factors • Septicemia and toxemia are caused by various bacteria • Pathogens are often opportunistic or nosocomial infections • Gram-negative bacteria cause septicemia more often than Gram-positive bacteria • Presence of capsule that resists phagocytosis • Capacity to capture iron needed for bacterial growth • Endotoxin produced by Gram-negative bacteria
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Bacterial Cardiovascular and Systemic Diseases Septicemia, Bacteremia, and Toxemia – Pathogenesis and epidemiology • Septicemia is acquired by direct inoculation of bacteria into the blood – Examples include medical procedures, drug users • Immunocompetent individuals rarely have septicemia – Bacterial infections in these people are self-limited • Gram-negative bacteria are more likely to produce severe septicemia due to release of endotoxin as the bacteria die – Endotoxin activates various defensive reactions by the body
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Bacterial Cardiovascular and Systemic Diseases [INSERT FIGURE 21.4]
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Bacterial Cardiovascular and Systemic Diseases Septicemia, Bacteremia, and Toxemia – Signs and symptoms are usually diagnostic – Bacteria are cultured from the blood in fewer than half the individuals with indications of sepsis
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This note was uploaded on 05/24/2011 for the course BIO 119 taught by Professor Stevendroho during the Spring '11 term at Moraine Valley Community College.

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Chapter 21 - Structure of the Cardiovascular System...

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