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powerpoint 3 - infancy - Infancy Infancy Changing view of...

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Unformatted text preview: Infancy Infancy Changing view of the newborn Physical development: body growth Physical Loss of weight in first few days Changes in body fat http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ogJvlGx_6Q Physical development: body growth Physical Cephalocaudal trend Proximodistal trend Inner to outer Growth of skull Growth Head to tail Fontanels allow for skull overlap during birth Common problem recently with newborns skulls http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery-health/6848-baby-health-infant-head-shape-video.htm Physical development: brain development brain Synaptic pruning Neurons that are Neurons stimulated often become stimulated Neurons that are Neurons seldom stimulated die seldom stronger stronger http://videos.howstuffworks.com/sciencentral/2890-sensory-information-during-childhood-video.htm (sensory stimulation & brain growth) Physical development: brain development brain Understimulation deprives them of development Overstimulation can lead to withdrawal Can cause similar symptoms as understimulation Experience expectant brain growth Experience expectant brain causes poor concentration and control of impulses Depends upon ordinary experience Experience dependent brain growth Experience dependent Growth and refinement of established brain structures Critical thinking break Critical Apply: Roseanne hung mobiles and pictures Apply: above her newborn’s crib hoping that this would help to stimulate her infant’s motor development. Is Roseanne doing the right thing? Why or why not? the Nutrition Nutrition Colostrum during 1st week Full of antibodies Benefits of breastfeeding for baby Benefits baby Lower risk for diarrhea Lower risk of respiratory infection Lower risk of ear infection Lower risk of diabetes Lower risk of lymphoma Lower risk of SIDS Nutrition Nutrition Benefits of breastfeeding for mom Benefits mom Faster recovery of uterus Less blood loss after delivery Earlier return to pre-pregnancy weight Reduced risk of ovarian and breast cancer A delay in ovulation Perceptual development: Vision Perceptual Vision is least mature of the Vision senses senses Detail and color limited at Detail birth birth Detail at 2 months Color at 6 months Depth perception Depth Visual cliff Depends on experience Perceptual development: Hearing Hearing Functional before birth Speech perception Detect sounds of any human Detect language language Adults – high pitched, sing-song DeCasper and Spence (1986) Cat DeCasper in the Hat study in Perceptual development: Touch Perceptual http://videos.howstuffworks.com/sciencentral/2636-the-gentle-touch-from-mom-video.htm Touch helps to stimulate early physical growth Well developed at birth Sensitive to pain Question for class: Would you want use of local Question anesthetic for circumcision? anesthetic Critical thinking break: Critical Connect: Provide several examples of Connect: how motor development influences infant’s social experiences. How do social experiences, in turn, influence motor development? development? Piaget: Basic characteristics Piaget: Stages are invariant Stages are universal The sequence is rooted in biology Piaget Piaget Schemes Organized way of making sense of experience Two processes account for change Two between sensorimotor to representational schemas . . . Piaget Piaget Assimilation Accommodation Use your current knowledge to interpret the external world Cognitive equilibrium Create new schemas or adjust old one to fit new information Cognitive disequilibrium Equilibration Movement back and forth between assimilation and accommodation Piaget: sensorimotor stage stage Children think with their eyes, ears, hands, Children mouths, etc. mouths, Object permanence Object still exists when they can NOT see it About 8 months Still make A not B error Movement to representational schemes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NjBh9ld_yIo Mental representation 18 months – 2 years Internal depictions of objects and events Evaluation of Piaget Evaluation Infants understand much more and much Infants more earlier than Piaget thought earlier than Not as orderly as Piaget thought Not as Infants have more of an Infants than Piaget thought than innate capacity innate Language development Language Behaviorist perspective Language develops through Language • Imitation • Positive reinforcement Nativist perspective Children are born prepared to learn language Language acquisition device Sensitive periods in language development Development of speech sounds Development Undifferentiated sounds (birth) Greater variation in cries, cooing (2 months) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I-v1rQSZCYE&feature=related Variegated babbling, jargon babbling, protowords, 1st true words (9-18 months) months) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FbpREWPj2tE Echolalia (8-12 months) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X7mOzWQSnaQ Transitional babbling (5 months) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0DDZbQ_OJW http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oddKrIqocPo Distinctive cries, laughing (4 months) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ERp4LwxW3DQ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fVjOgLcw5oY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5YBYVeOVD6s Telegraphic speech (24 months) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w2EertzeHjM&feature=related Emotional development Emotional Harry Harlow (1950s) Infant rhesus monkeys Wire mesh mom with food versus terry cloth mom without food Contradicted behavioral and psychoanalytic theories of the time http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/attachment.html Emotional development Emotional Mary Ainsworth (1970s) Strange situation Stranger anxiety Separation anxiety A wariness or fear of unfamiliar adults Signs of distress when attachment figure leaves http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/a Emotional development: Ainsworth Emotional Secure attachment (62%) Insecure avoidant (15%) No special preference for mom Ignore mom when she returns Insecure resistant or ambivalent (8%) Stranger anxiety and separation anxiety Mother can soothe infant upon reunion Exaggerated separation and stranger anxiety Mother can not provide comfort when she returns Disorganized (15%) Confused or contradictory behaviors Attachment Attachment What causes attachment? Parenting styles Sensitive responsiveness • • • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xH1CbC4No24 (program to promote attachment) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QYi-ta_xXSQ&feature=related (video to help parents) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KxnXtqiTdrY&NR=1 (attachment and babies) Indifferent parenting Abuse Infant factors Highly irritable Attachment Attachment Father Just as likely to form close relationships with Just fathers as with mothers fathers Daycare Only has an effect on attachment when it is Only low quality daycare OR when it is combined with less sensitive mothering with ...
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