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powerpoint _1 - Introduction to lifespan

powerpoint _1 - Introduction to lifespan - Introduction...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction, History and Introduction, History and Theory Overview Overview The three worlds of development: Physical Cognitive Emotional/social Critical thinking break Critical thinking break Connect: Provide an example of how one domain of development can affect another domain Basic issues in development Basic issues in development Theory – An orderly set of integrated statements that describes, explains and predicts behavior Theories are: – Affects by zeitgeist – Depend on scientific verification – Must be testable Basic issues in development Basic issues in development Controversial issues: Concept of humanity Continuous versus discontinuous development Nature versus nurture Uniqueness versus similarities Stability versus change Free choice versus determinism Critical thinking break: Critical thinking break: Apply: A school counselor advises a parent: don’t worry about your teenagers argumentative behavior. It shows that she understands the world differently than she did as a child. What stand is the counselor taking on the issue of continuous versus discontinuous development. Explain. Historical foundations: Historical foundations: Enlightenment (17th century) John Locke (1632­1704) Tabula rasa – Can do little to influence their own destiny Reward important; Opposed physical punishment Adult behaviors built over time Change is always possible Historical foundations: Historical foundations: Enlightenment (17th century) Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712­1778) Children as noble savages – Natural sense of right and wrong Child­centered philosophy Four stages of development – Infancy, childhood, late childhood, adolescence Children mature naturally Children control their own destinies Historical foundations: The Historical foundations: The normative approach G Stanley Hall (1846­1924) Founder of child study movement Inspired by Darwin Development is genetically determined process Measures of many behaviors among many children Gessell – Child rearing advice available for lay public Critical thinking break: Critical thinking break: Connect: What do the ideas of Rousseau and Hall have in common? Mid­Twentieth Century Theories Mid­Twentieth Century Theories How and why do children develop the way they do? Psychoanalysis Behaviorism and social learning Piaget’s Cognitive developmental stage theory Psychoanalytic theories Psychoanalytic theories Series of stage in which confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations Freud (1856­1939) – Founder of psychoanalytic movement – Psychosexual theory Freud’s theory Freud’s theory Structure of personality Id (“it”) – pleasure principle Ego (“I”) – reality principle Superego (“Above I”) Freud’s theory Freud’s theory Psychosexual development oral anal phallic – Oedipal complex – development of superego latency genital Erikson’s theory: Erikson’s theory: Relation to Freud’s theory Originally intended as an extension Crisis – Freud: psychosexual crisis – Erikson: psychosocial crisis Conscious versus unconscious – Ego elevated over id Life cycle – Added four stages Focus on identity versus sexuality Data collection techniques Behaviorism and social learning Behaviorism and social learning Pavlov and classical conditioning Watson and Little Albert BF Skinner and operant conditioning Bandura and social learning Critical thinking break Critical thinking break Apply: A 4­year old becomes frightened of the dark and refuses to go to sleep at night. How would a psychoanalyst and a behaviorist differ in their views of how this problem developed? Piaget’s cognitive developmental Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory Piaget (1896­1980) Theory became well known in US in 1960s Went against behaviorism Children actively construct knowledge Methods of study: – Observation combined with interview Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory Lev Vygotsky (1896­1934) Sociocultural theory Focuses on culture – Values, beliefs, customs, and skills of a social group How is culture transmitted? – – Social interaction – cooperative dialogues Internalization of dialogues Children are active beings through a socially mediated process Ecological systems theory Ecological systems theory Urie Brofenbrenner (1917­2005) Development within complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the environment Critical thinking break Critical thinking break Reflect: To illustrate the chronosystem in ecological systems theory, select an important event from our childhood, such as a move to a new neighborhood, a class with an inspiring teacher, or a parental divorce. How did the event affect you? How might iuts impact have differed had you been 5 years younger? How about 5 years older? ...
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