powerpoint _4 - early childhood

powerpoint _4 - early childhood - Physical Cognitive and...

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Unformatted text preview: Physical, Cognitive and Physical, Cognitive and Emotional Development of Early Childhood Ages 3­6 Physical growth Physical growth Grow 2­3 inches per year Gain 5 and a half pounds per year Proportions change Very few gender differences Patterns of development within the brain Patterns of development within the brain Visual cortex – occipital lobe Temporal lobes Language, hand eye coordination Frontal lobes Language Parietal lobes Complex visual patterns Planning and organizing behavior Control of emotions Hippocampus Memories Infantile amnesia Gross motor Gross motor development Balance improves greatly Coordination of movement Muscles in trunk, legs, arms to maintain balance Pedaling a tricycle Locomotor skills improve Hand­eye coordination improves as well Fine motor development Fine motor development http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=­QW3RyXDTiQ (activity to enhance motor development) Control over the delicate movements of the hands and fingers Proximodistal pattern of development Maturing pencil grip Motor practice prunes out ineffective synapses and increases synaptogenesis for new skills Child mistreatment Child mistreatment Physical abuse Physical harm toward a child http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w6yfvx0ik1M&feature=related (shaken baby syndrome) Neglect Sexual abuse Fondling, committing sexual acts, exposing a child to indecent acts or involving the child in pornography Psychological abuse Failure to provide for a child’s basic physical education or psychological needs Verbal put downs or other behavior that terrorizes, threatens, rejects or isolates children Who is likely to do the abuse? Effects of abuse and neglect Effects of abuse and neglect Breaks the trust between parent and child Permanent effect on the brain Effects of physical abuse Limbic system Greater aggression depression, low self­esteem, and self destructive behaviors Compulsive compliance Language delay and poor academic performance Effects of neglect Language delays, intelligence deficits, and lower academic performance are common Show poor impulse control Social withdrawal Critical thinking questions Critical thinking questions How severe must neglect be before the child is removed from the home? What can be done to prevent such things from occurring? Cognitive Development of Cognitive Development of Early Childhood Piaget Piaget Sensorimotor (Birth to 2 years) Preoperational stage (2 to 7 years) What is the biggest change in cognition? Advances in mental representation Advances in mental representation Language and thought Overcome momentary experience Sensorimotor activity internal images language Language development based on ability to mentally represent Advances in mental Advances in mental representation Children’s artwork Scribbles First representational forms (about age 3) More realistic drawings (about age 4 or 5) Advances in mental representation Advances in mental representation Make Believe Play Slowly detaches from real life conditions More flexible Less self­centered Gradual more complex combinations of schemes Sociodramatic play http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e93QTmIN50w (parallel play) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pdOwvZwiYwk (sociodramatic play) Critical thinking break Critical thinking break Sandy has a two year old child who has just started pretending. Sandy doesn’t understand why pretending is so important. What might you tell her? How can Sandy enhance make­believe play? Preoperational thought: Preoperational thought: Intuition The emergence of intuitive thought “It seems like . . .” Reasoning based on personal experience or on intuitive logic rather than on any formal logical system This leads us to some of the limitations of children’s thought during this stage . . . Limitations of Limitations of preoperational thought Preoperational thought = lack of logical and concrete operations operations – mental representations of actions that obey logical rules Thinking is rigid and limited Thinking is influenced by appearances Egocentrism failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one’s own Three mountains problem Bias that prevents children from accommodating Limitations of Limitations of preoperational thought Animistic thinking Artificialism Inanimate objects have lifelike qualities such as thoughts, wishes, feelings and intentions Natural events are under the control of people or superhuman agents Inability to conserve Conservation ­ certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same even when their outward appearance changes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GLj0IZFLKvg&NR=1 (inability to conserve liquid) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tYtNk0BotRE&NR=1 (inability to classify) Piaget’s legacy Piaget’s legacy Child is active and curious interactive and hands on curricula Children can not skip stages guidelines for when to introduce different topics in school Children have schemes, assimilation, accommodation deliberately set up challenging material to change schemes Evaluation of the Evaluation of the preoperational stage Support for Piaget Some evidence for a lack of operations Especially complex operations Conservation is not fully grasped until school years Limitations of Piaget Evidence that some operational reasoning occurs in small children Especially simple and familiar http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sIkpdM4k1DU&playnext_from=PL&feature=PlayList&p=9CF8C09BF868837F&index=39 (for an example of a child being nonegocentric) Operational reasoning is acquired gradually Critical thinking break: Critical thinking break: Apply: At home, 4­year­old Will understands that his tricycle isn’t alive and can’t move by itself. Yet when Will went fishing with his family and his father asked, “Why do you think the river is flowing?” Will responded, “Because it is alive and it wants to.” What explains this contradiction in Will’s reasoning? Vygotsky’s sociocultural Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory Similar to Piaget: Children are active learners Primary difference with Piaget: Social and cultural context profoundly influence cognition Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory: Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory: Language Social speech speech that we hear as people talk around us Private speech Speech that children say to themselves and then later internalize http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KesUV5mXX_s (private speech) Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory: Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory: Language Why is language important? Piaget – Language is a reflection of cognitive changes Vygotsky ­ Language changes cognition Research says: Children’s speech to themselves Piaget – egocentric speech Vygotsky – private speech Research says: Piaget’s model Vygotsky’s model Change in cognition Language, Play, Art work Ability to mentally represent Change in cognition Language, Play, Art work Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory: Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory: Social origins of development Zone of proximal development Challenging range of tasks Upper part of range too difficult for children to do themselves Helping adults and peers expand range http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h6oQfZ­PrwM (zone of proximal development) Scaffolding Providing supportive help when a child is developing a mental function or is learning to do a particular task Scaffolds are removed as child understand more fully http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lmJoOjLQM3U&feature=related (scaffolding) Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory: Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory: Social origins of development Cooperative learning Children providing help for one another Often function as scaffolds for one another Make­believe play Zone of proximal development Central source of development during the preschool years Social origins of make believe play Evaluation of Vygotsky’s theory Evaluation of Vygotsky’s theory Benefits: Limitations: Socioemotional development Socioemotional development of early childhood Socioemotional development Socioemotional development I. The self II. Parenting III. Friends and Play The self: Self­regulation The self: Self­regulation Self­regulation: ability to control our own behavior, thoughts, and emotions and change them to meet demands Begins with external control by others that becomes internalized Associated with positive outcomes Self­regulation develops because of Temperament Frontal lobe The way adults direct children’s behavior Make­believe play and private speech The self: Ideas about gender The self: Ideas about gender Gender identity (2 and a half) Gender stereotypes (4­5 years of age) Children’s understanding of what is appropriate boy behavior and girl behavior Very rigid early on Gender stability (4­5 years of age) children’s ability to categorize themselves and others correctly as boys or girls Gender is a stable characteristic over time Boys continue to be boys and girls continue to be girls Gender constancy (6­7 years of age) Gender is consistent across changes in outward appearance such as hairstyles or clothing Dimensions of Parenting Dimensions of Parenting Warmth The degree to which parents are accepting, responsive and compassionate with their children Control The degree to which parents set limits, enforce rules, and maintain discipline with children Warm: Cold: accepting rejecting, unresponsive Firm Authoritative: Authoritarian: control Warm with control Cold with control Lax Permissive: Rejecting/Neglecting: control Warm and lax Cold and lax Warm: Cold: accepting rejecting, unresponsive Firm Authoritative: Authoritarian: control Rational, consistent, child­centered discipline Discipline tends to be harsh and punitive, child has little input Lax Permissive: control Avoid confrontation, are indulgent Rejecting: actively reject their children Neglecting: ignore their children Warm: accepting Firm control Lax control Cold: rejecting, unresponsive Authoritative Authoritarian Children: Perform the best academically and socially Permissive Children: More impulsive, poorer academic performance Children: More angry, poorer academic performance Rejecting/Neglecting Children: Perform the worst academically, and socially Friends Friends Gender segregation Reasons for gender segregation The tendency of children to associate with others of the same sex Play compatibility Cognitive schemes Operant conditioning Effects of gender segregation Boys and girls grow up in gender cultures Consequences for later relationships . . . Play Play Play Voluntary Intrinsically motivated Often contains some non­literal elements How make believe has changed over the last 50 years http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=19212514 The social levels of play: Parten’s classic study 1. Unoccupied behavior 2. Onlooking 3. Solitary play 4. Parallel play 5. Associative play 6. Cooperative play Sociodramatic play Sociodramatic play Sociodramatic play acting out different social roles and characters Serves the following functions: 1. Imitation of adults 2. Reenactment of family relationships 3. Expression of needs 4. Outlet for forbidden impulses 5. Reversal of roles ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/24/2011 for the course PSY 104 taught by Professor Lauralauzen-collins during the Spring '11 term at Moraine Valley Community College.

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