powerpoint _7 - early adulthood_1

powerpoint _7 - early adulthood_1 - Early Adulthood Early...

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Unformatted text preview: Early Adulthood Early 20-40 years old Physical changes in adulthood Primary versus secondary aging Primary – expected changes Secondary – changes due to other events What What is the leading contributor to secondary aging? secondary Smoking as a terotogen Smoking This is a list taken directly from the website: http://whyquit.com/whyquit/linksbirth.html It lists all of the possible consequences for children of women who smoke when they are pregnant. . Autism - 07/02 Autism Asthma - 01/04 Clubfoot - 08/02 Wheezing - 12/03 Birth defects - 11/05 Hyperactivity - 04/04 Ear infections - 02/02 Shorter height - 07/06 Premature birth - 02/02 Low-birthweight - 01/04 Hearing damage - 07/06 Fewer brain cells - 08/04 Immunodeficiency - 06/05 Middle ear disease - 08/99 Ectopic pregnancy - 02/02 Inferior school work - 06/08 Tourette's syndrome - 06/06 Colic or excessive crying - 08/01 Increased infant irritability - 05/09 Nicotine withdrawal at birth - 06/03 Obesity and type II diabetes - 12/05 Abnormal lung development - 01/02 Reduced umbilical blood flow - 02/09 Doubled risk of stillbirth - 04/04 10/09 Deficits in visuospatial memory - 12/05 Diminished brain/head growth - 02/07 40% higher infant mortality - 12/03 Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) - 09/02 2.7 times increase infant infections - 01/08 Increase of child's total cholesterol - 01/08 Optic nerve hypoplasia and visual impairment - 06/02 Placental abruption and placenta previa - 10/01 11/96 Oral clefts in the lip and/or palate - 07/04 01/02 02/00 Alterations in medial temporal lobe brain function - 12/05 Narrowing of child's largest artery, their aorta - 08/08 Smaller baby brain waves and slower speech response - 04/07 50% greater chance of mental retardation (I.Q. less than 70) - 04/96 Increased lifetime testosterone levels for girls - 06/03 Increased risk of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis for girls - 01/05 Diminished future fertility (fewer eggs) for girls - 04/99 2.2 times greater odds of developing eye retina cancer - 07/09 Significantly smaller frontal lobe & cerebellar regions - 10/09 53% greater odds of child being nicotine dependent at age 21 - 08/09 160% increase of child having behavioral problems - 07/98 Diminished sperm count/smaller testes for boys - 01/04 05/03 Brain damage to serotonin neurons, possible lifetime depression 09/01 $704 avg. in extra neonatal costs per smoking mother - 10/04 04/02 $900 avg. inpatient hospital costs for the child over first 5 years - 03/05 344% greater odds of ADHD - 11/06 07/04 07/03 Controlling secondary aging: Smoking also of course affects the smoker him or herself Smoking affects almost every part of the body Appearance: Brain: Stroke, altered brain chemistry, anxiety disorders, later mental impairment Eyes: Macular degeneration, cataracts, also the eyes tend to sting more and water Nose: Loss of sense of smell Thyroid: Graves disease and Thyroid disease Teeth: Gum disease, loose teeth Mouth: reduced sense of taste, sore throat, cancers of the throat, lips, mouth, esophagus, and larynx Mouth: reduced Hands: Poor circulation, peripheral vascular disease Hands: Poor Respiratory and lungs: lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, chronic cough, shortness of breath, colds and flu, Respiratory pneumonia, asthma pneumonia, Heart: harms, blocks and weakens arteries around heart, increased blood pressure, heart disease, heart attack Liver: liver cancer Liver: liver Abdomen: ulcers, cancer of the stomach, pancreas, and colon, aortic aneurysm, diabetes Abdomen: ulcers, Kidneys and bladder: kidney cancer, bladder cancer Kidneys kidney Bones and spine: Osteoporosis, spine and hip fractures, degenerative disk disease Bones Osteoporosis, Reproductive systems: Male impotence, infertility in both men and women, painful periods, earlier menopause, cancer Reproductive of the cervix of Blood: Leukemia Blood: Leukemia Legs and feet: Gangrene, peripheral vascular disease, Beurger disease Legs Gangrene, Immune system: weakened immune system – more susceptible to colds and flu, 25% more sick days taken by smokers Immune than non-smokers than Smoking also causes a negative effect over time on appearance. Skin: increased wrinkles and premature aging of the skin as well as paler skin, staining of the fingers Skin: increased Teeth: staining of the teeth and gums as well as loose teeth and bleeding gums and bad breath Teeth: staining Hair: staining of the hair Hair: staining Smoking is also related to general mental impairment later in life. Smoking It is also related to Alzheimer’s disease as well as other forms of dementia. Changes in the brain Synaptogenesis Synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continue pruning Growth 1st spurts one 17-21/22 Formal 2nd operations one mid to late 20s Planning Planning ahead and thinking rationally about the future Limbic system involvement as well Loss of speed Physical changes in adulthood Other body systems Heart and lung – decline around the age of 35 Strength and speed – decline beins in early 30s Gradual decline over all systems Reproductive system Decline begins in the 30s At age 30 7% of couples are infertile At age 40 33% of couples are infertile At age 45 87% of couples are infertile Immune system functioning Somewhat increased susceptibility to illness Risk taking behaviors in early adulthood adulthood What What are some common risks taken during early adulthood? during Sexual patterns in early adulthood early Sexual patterns Bacterial STDs and Bacterial STIs STIs Age 18 – 60% have had Age intercourse intercourse Causal sex and gender Causal differences differences Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Viral STDs and STIs Genital herpes Genital warts – HPV HIV/AIDS Substance use and abuse Substance Binge drinking Peaks at 21 to 22 years of age Alcoholism Other drug use patterns Cognitive changes in early adulthood adulthood Post-formal More operations context based More creativity Multiple solutions Cognitive changes in early adulthood adulthood Intelligence Verbal and memory abilities grow during early adulthood Spatial skills decline a bit during early adulthood IQ remains relatively stable Memory skills remain stable through early Memory adulthood adulthood Crystallized vs. fluid intelligence Cognitive changes in adulthood Cognitive Post-secondary Traditional Traditional education versus nontraditional students students What What are the advantages and disadvantages of going back to school as a young adult, middle adult or late adult? adult Erikson: Intimacy versus isolation Erikson: Intimacy Isolation Each of the following can affect resolution of this stage Lack of a stable identity Barriers to communication Fear of commitment (poor resolution from a previous stage) Need for too much intimacy Levenson’s theory Levenson’s Life structure underlying pattern of a person’s life at a given time underlying includes roles, relationships and behavior patterns Novice phase – adjustment period at beginning of Novice new life structure new Mid-era phase – reassessment and reorganization of the life structure Culmination phase – manage demands of the new developmental challenges with more confidence and less distress confidence Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love Romantic love Passion • Fatuous love Consummate Intimacy love • Companionat e love • Decision/ Decision/ Commitment Socioemotional changes in adulthood: Marriage adulthood: Bridal Bridal stress disorder disorder http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =uQ8PL9f3g6s Marital trends Later Later marriages marriages Components of a healthy marriage? Components Nurturing fondness and admiration Turning toward each other instead of away Letting your partner influence you Letting Creating shared meaning in your life (a shared Creating understanding and shared events) understanding Making time for the relationship Expressing feelings of love to one’s spouse Being there for the spouse in times of need Communicating constructively and positively Communicating about the relationship about Being interested in your spouse’s life Confiding in your spouse Forgiving minor offenses and trying to Forgiving understand major ones understand Contributors to a healthy marriage Contributors Degree of neuroticism Attachment to family of origin Emotional affection is also a contributor to Emotional relationship quality relationship How conflict is managed Validating couples Volatile couples Avoidant couples Hostile/engaged couples Hostile/detached couples Benefits of a good marriage Benefits Health benefits Psychological Gender benefits differences Divorce Divorce Associated with increases in both physical and emotional Associated illness illness Parents versus children The “divorce hangover” Men versus women Parents – strongest effects – 0-6 months Children – strongest effects 12-24 months Earning potential differentials between men and women Earning Women have a stronger social network than men What are some strategies to reduce stress during this What period? period? Cohabitating couples Cohabitating Cohabiting Cohabiting Not couples much research on these couples Have a somewhat higher rate of divorce once Have they marry they Same sex relationships relationships How How common are same sex relationships today? relationships 3 - 4% among men 4% 1½ - 2% among women Same Same sex sexual behaviors are common among various species species Been Been observed in more than 450 species including giraffes, goats, birds, chimpanzees, lizards birds, Among humans the incidence Among varies depending on the prevailing attitudes attitudes Causes of sexual orientation Causes Differences in upbringing? No differences Past family background Past Absence of one parent No differences Type of relationship with parents No differences Sexual abuse No differences Age at onset of puberty No differences High school dating patterns No differences Less conforming as children Difference Biological differences LeVay – hypothalamus studies Twin studies Identical vs. fraternal vs. adoptive siblings There will never be a single “gay gene” Dispelling myths Dispelling Adults who become gay did so because they were Adults abused as children abused False Gay and lesbian youth are more likely to addicted Gay to drugs or alcohol to False Gay men and lesbian women jump from partner to Gay False partner much more frequently than straight individuals individuals Gay men and lesbian women have a less satisfying False Gay relationship with their partners relationship Children of gay couples have more psychological Children or social problems than children of straight couples False or Contrasts and Comparisons Contrasts Same levels of satisfaction and commitment Tend to meet their partners in similar ways Tend to be equally affected by equity and social exchange concerns Tend to report comparable liking and loving in their relationships Same sex love tends to be more intimate than opposite sex love Gay men in particular tend to have more meaningful and intimate Gay close friendships with same sex friends Children of same sex couples are just as well adjusted as children Children of opposite sex couples of Some evidence shows that same sex couples children are better Some adjusted adjusted Singlehood Singlehood Singlehood Role of close friends Role of social networks Family is defined differently for singles Parenting Parenting Parenthood The The desire to become a parent parent Postpartum depression (1025%) The transition experience Developmental impact of Developmental parenthood parenthood Childlessness Greater cohesion Effects on career Effects Socioemotional changes in adulthood: Working adulthood: Choosing Work an occupation sequence Trial stage Establishment stage Establishment Work Work satisfaction goes up with age and experience experience ...
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