powerpoint__5_-_middle_childhood

powerpoint__5_-_middle_childhood - Middle childhood Middle...

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Unformatted text preview: Middle childhood Middle Physical development Ages 7­11 Physical growth Physical Growth of the body – Slower growth – After age 10, sex differences begin to appear Growth of the brain – – – Age 6, brain at 90% of its adult size Brain continues growth until age 10 After age 10 some reduction in size of brain Pruning of the brain – Sensory and motor centers (occipital first) – Association areas (including the parietal and temporal lobes) – motor skills – Prefrontal cortex is the last to mature Motor development and physical activity activity Improvements in: – Accuracy – Strength and force – Flexibility – Balance and agility – Better coordination – Fine motor development Gender differences? Children with exceptional needs Children Children with exceptional needs – children who require extra help beyond what is needed by peers Approximately one out of every five ADHD ADHD Inability to sustain attention, excessive activity, and deficiencies in impulse control that are unusual for the child’s developmental level About 4­6% of children have this disorder Usually show two distinct stages – Early stage focuses on hyperactivity – Later stage focuses attention/concentration What are the consequences for – the child? – the family? Communicating and learning disorders Communicating Communication disorder – significant difficulty producing speech sounds, using spoken language to communicate, or understanding what other people are saying Learning disorder – conditions involving difficulties with specific skills such as reading, mathematics, or writing With both types of disorders, children tend to be average or above average intelligence Autism spectrum disorders Autism Affects 1 to 6 out of every 1000 children in the US – More common in boys than girls Common indicators: – Speech and language issues – Problems with social interaction – Unusual behaviors – Some show “splinter skills” Treatment – Self­care skills – Intensive behavioral therapy Educating children with special needs Educating Students with exceptional needs are legally entitled to a free and appropriate public school education The law requires that every child identified as needing special education services have an IEP – individualized education plan Students must also be educated in the least restrictive environment Cognitive development Cognitive development Piaget: Concrete operational stage Piaget: Achievements Conservation – Decentration – Reversibility Classification – Class inclusion Seriation – Transitive inference Spatial reasoning – Maps Piaget: Concrete operations operations Limitations – – – Advances linked to concrete information Do not carry into abstract operations Must engage in trial and error, stepwise movement Follow­up research – Cultural and school practices affect this stage Evaluation of concrete operational stage – Continuous or discontinuous? Language development: Learning two languages Learning Acquiring both languages at once – Bilingual households Acquiring a second language after mastering the first – Immersion schools Bilingual education – Language immersion – Bilingual education – Semilingualism Language development Language Critical thinking break: – Did you acquire a second language at home or study one in school? If so, when did you begin? Considering what you now know about bilingual development and education, what changes would you make in your second language learning and why? Socioemotional development Socioemotional development Erikson’s theory: Erikson’s Industry versus inferiority Industry Why is this age particularly focused on issues of industry versus inferiority? Favorable resolution: Industry – a realistic self concept and pride in accomplishment Unfavorable resolution: Inferiority – little confidence in their ability to do things well Self-understanding: Self-understanding: Self-concept Self-concept Advances among school aged children: – – – Describe self in terms of stable traits Compare to peers Hypothesize about causes of traits How do this happen? – – – Combine multiple characteristics/information Better at reading messages from others Form ideal versus real self Self-understanding: Self-understanding: Self-esteem Self-esteem Preschoolers self esteem is – High and unrealistic School aged children self­esteem is – Lowered – More realistic – Hierarchically structured (more differentiated) Self-understanding: Self-understanding: Influences on self-esteem Influences Culture – Individualistic versus collectivistic cultures Child rearing – – – Authoritative Authoritarian Passive Critical thinking Critical Should parents try to promote children’s self esteem by telling them that they are smart and wonderful? Is it harmful if children do not feel good about everything they do? How can we foster a positive selfHow evaluation? Early caregiving Stress effort and improvement and not outcomes Provide instruction and guidance Give honest feedback Teach goal setting skills Emphasize strengths Divorce stress adjustment perspective perspective Mediating factors – Resources and support – Continuing conflict Specific vulnerabilities – Temperament of child and adult – Predisposition to psychological problems Protective factors – – – Effective coping skills Social support Access to services and good schools Adjustment – Short­term versus long­term adjustment Children and Divorce Children Behavioral outcomes – Tend to show more externalizing behaviors Psychological outcomes – Parentification – role reversal (instrumental or emotional) – Sleeper effect Positive outcomes – End of high conflict relationship – Moderate demands are good – Negative effects tend to be small Peers, friends and peer popularity Peers, Peer popularity – Peer nomination technique – a polling technique Popular children – Receive the “like best” nomination most often – Good social skills Rejected children – Receive the “like least” nomination most often – Rejected aggressive/Rejected withdrawn Peers, friends and peer popularity Peers, Controversial children – Large number of “like most” and “like least” nominations – Least research on this group Average children – Moderate numbers of “like least” and “like best” Neglected children – Receive very few “like best” or “like least” – Tend to be less sociable ...
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