The first article for review is titled Self-efficacy, Health Locus of Control, and
This article studies how the participants confidence levels and health
locus prior to entering treatment predicts results of the quitting program.
program is called "Fresh Start" and was conducted in Victoria, Australia.
consisted of three groups:
those who made an attempt (Stop for one day),
those who met criteria in A, and did not smoke for duration of
those who abstained for six months.
Confidence was tested by questionnaires (post, during and at 6-month period).
Health Locus is defined by how the participant attributed health outcomes
(internal, external or by chance).
The results of this experiment showed that
those individuals across the three groups who had high levels of self-efficacy was
related not to the number of attempts to quit, but the success of the attempts,
while "the role of Health Locus of Control [was found to be] complex needing
The second article for review is titled, Sensation Seeking, Nicotine
Dependence, and Smoking Motivation in Female and Male Smokers.
This study was
conducted using a sample of French smokers (36 F, 60 M) and non-smokers (23 F, 45
The goal of the experiment was to study "the relationship between sensation
seeking and smoking" (p. 221).
The objectives of the study was (a) to see if
smokers are higher in sensation seeking than their non-smoking
to see if there are any gender forces in smoking and sensation seeking, and (c) to
examine "in each sex, the nature of the relationship between sensation seeking and
smoking" (p. 221).
These three items were measured on four sub-scales, they are:
The Disinhibition subscale (DIS) - shows desire to be socially
The Thrill and Adventure Seeking subscale (TAS) - shows desire,
extreme physical activities.
The Experience Seeking subscale (ES) - shows search for new and
exciting life experiences.
The Boredom Susceptibility subscale (BS)
After the evaluation of multiple questionnaires was completed, results of the
subscale analysis was as follows:
Smokers score higher in sensation seeking regardless of sex, than
Women scored higher scores than men in the ES subscale (trend).
Men scored higher on AIS and TAS scale than women.
ES and BS subscales had a significant main effect for smoking
This study concludes by showing "that smokers score higher on measures of
sensation seeking than do non-smokers" (p. 224).
This aids the belief that
sensation seekers may be more open to become dependant on smoking, as opposed to
those who score low on sensation seeking activities.
Finally, women scoring higher
on the ES subscale, was attributed to mass media and emerging cultural trends that
have lured more women to be independent and more experience seeking than in the
The next article in the subject of smoking is titled Measuring Readiness and