Lecture 2 - GS2 1011 - MITOSIS & MEIOSIS

Lecture 2 - GS2 1011 - MITOSIS & MEIOSIS - Outline...

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1 Genetics – Lecture 2 Chromosomes and Cellular Reproduction: Mitosis & Meiosis Genetics – Lecture 2 Outline 1. Characteristics of prokaryote and eukaryote cells 2. Cell Reproduction & MITOSIS 3. Sexual Reproduction & Genetic variation Genetics – Lecture 2 Unicellular, with no compartmentalized cell structure. Prokaryotic DNA does not exist in the highly ordered and packed arrangement. Usually one circular DNA molecule Prokaryote (1) Genetics – Lecture 2 • Made up of eubacteria (true bacteria) and archaea (ancient bacteria). Prokaryote (2)
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2 Genetics – Lecture 2 Both unicellular and multicellular with compartmentalized cell structure. Its genetic material is surrounded in a nuclear envelope to form a nucleus. Eukaryote (1) Genetics – Lecture 2 DNA is closely associated with histones to form tightly packed chromosomes. Multiple, linear chromosomes Eukaryote (2) Genetics – Lecture 2 Outline 1. Characteristics of prokaryote and eukaryote cells 2. Cell Reproduction & MITOSIS a. Prokaryotic cell reproduction b. Eukaryotic cell reproduction 3. Sexual Reproduction & Genetic variation Genetics – Lecture 2 • Simple division: separation of replicated circular chromosome • Replication at a specific place (origin of replication) • New cell wall forms to produce 2 cells • High rate of replication Prokaryotic Cell Reproduction
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3 Genetics – Lecture 2 Genetics – Lecture 2 Outline 1. Characteristics of prokaryote and eukaryote cells 2. Cell Reproduction & MITOSIS a. Prokaryotic cell reproduction b. Eukaryotic cell reproduction 3. Sexual Reproduction & Genetic variation Genetics – Lecture 2 Chromosome structure The cell cycle Genetic consequences of the cell cycle Eukaryotic Cell Reproduction Genetics – Lecture 2 Chromosome Structure (1) Centromere : attachment point for spindle microtubules Telomeres: tips of a linear chromosome Provide chromosome stability Participate in limiting cell division & may play important roles in aging & cancer. Origins of replication : where the DNA synthesis begins
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4 Genetics – Lecture 2 Genetics – Lecture 2 Chromosome Structure (2) 4 types of chromosomes based on the location of the centromere. Genetics – Lecture 2 Chromosomes, Eukaryote Genome = DNA Chromosome = DNA + protein (visible light microscope) Chromatin = DNA + protein DNA Genetics – Lecture 2 Chromosomes vs. Chromatin Chromosomes • Tightly packaged DNA • Found only during cell division • DNA is not being used for macromolecule synthesis Chromatin • Unwound DNA • Found throughout Interphase • DNA is being used for macromolecule synthesis
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5 Genetics – Lecture 2 How Long is a Chromatid a Chromatid?
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This note was uploaded on 05/21/2011 for the course BIO 2 taught by Professor Nguyenminhthanh during the Spring '11 term at Akita International University.

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Lecture 2 - GS2 1011 - MITOSIS & MEIOSIS - Outline...

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