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Geog. 120 Notes 3

Geog. 120 Notes 3 - • Semites and Berbers • Arabic and...

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o Iran is an Islamic Theocracy o Theocratic state – state where religious leaders (ayatollahs) guide policy o The Emergence of Islam Five pillars o Repeat the basic creed to accept Islam (“There is no God but God, and Muhammad is his prophet”) o Pray five times daily facing Makkah (Mecca) o Give charitable contributions o Fast during month of Ramadan o Make religious pilgrimage (Hajj) to Makkah (see image) o Modern Religious Diversity Muslims majority in region, except for in Israel and Cyprus Sunni (73%); Shiites (23%) dominant in Iran, southern Iraq, Lebanon, Sudan, and Bahrain Sufism (mystic form of Islam) in region’s margins, and Druze (spin-off of Shi’a Islam) of Lebanon and Syria o The expansion of the Ottoman Empire helped to spread Islam o Ottoman Empire – vast empire of Turks; it included most of Southwest Asia and North Africa, as well as Southeastern Europe (circa 1453) o Jerusalem’s “Old City” includes sacred sites for Jews, Christians, and Muslims
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Unformatted text preview: • Semites and Berbers • Arabic and Hebrew (Semite) • Berber in Atlas Mts. & Sahara • Persians and Kurds o Indo-European languages • Persian in Iran • Kurdish in northern Iraq, NW Iran, eastern Turkey • The Turkish Imprint • Altaic language: more o Turkic speakers in Central Asia o Islamic Internationalism • Islamic communities well-established in central China, European Russia, central Africa, southern Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, elsewhere • Muslim congregations expanding in urban areas of western Europe and North America o Globalization and Cultural Change • Global economy is having impact on traditional cultural values o Fundamentalism a reaction • Access to satellite TV, cellular phones, the internet bring global culture to the region...
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