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Geog. 120 Notes 4

Geog. 120 Notes 4 - war in 1990s now has conflict between...

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Geopolitical Framework o The Colonial Legacy European colonialism came late to the region o Dominance of Ottoman Empire (1550-1850) o Widespread European colonialism after WWI o Many political boundaries set by colonial powers o Imposing European Power French in Algeria since 1800, later in Tunisia, Morocco, Syria and Lebanon Britain in Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf by 1900 o Suez Canal – British-engineered canal linking Mediterranean and Red seas in 1869 o European banks influenced Egyptian economy o British instrumental in establishing Saudi Arabia Italians in Libya, Spanish in Morocco Turkey, Iran (Persia) never occupied o Imposing European Power Decolonization and Independence o Europeans began to withdraw before WWII By 1950 most countries independent Algeria independent in 1962 o Modern Geopolitical Issues Across North Africa o Libya formerly a problem, now moving toward cooperation o Islamist movements in Algeria and Egypt o Sudan had north (Islamist) vs. south (Christian and animist)
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Unformatted text preview: war in 1990s; now has conflict between Arabs and black Africans in the Darfur region • Arab-Israeli Conflict o Creation of Israel in 1948 o Three wars: 1956, 1967 (when Israel gained most land), 1973 o Intifada (1987): Palestinian uprisings protesting Jewish settlements (ongoing) o Construction of wall around settlements a new source of tension • Troubled Iraq o Born in colonial era, carved from British Empire in 1932 o Many ethnic groups: Shia Arab, Sunni Arab, Kurds, Marsh Arabs o U.S. troops in Iraq (since 2003) • Instability in Saudi Arabia o Saud family (conservative monarchy) controls country o No democratic reforms o Home to radical Wahhabi Muslims (15 of 19 9/11 hijackers were Saudi) o Foreign workers, U.S. military presence • Iranian Geopolitics o Islamic Revolution 1979 o Supports other Shi’ite Islamists o-Oil and gas reserves o-Nuclear development-Reformers among Iran’s educated middle class...
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