BIO 203_11 Exam 3 (0) post

BIO 203_11 Exam 3 (0) post - BIO 203 - Exam 3 Choose the...

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1. Digestion (nutrients) a) A trigyceride is a fat molecule consisting of three fatty acids connected to glycerol by ester linkages. b) Per unit weight, oxidation of fat releases twice as much energy as oxidation of carbohydrates or proteins. c) At room temperature, fats that are fully saturated with hydrogen tend to form solids, whereas fats that are not fully saturated with hydrogen tend to form liquids. d) Animals cannot synthesize omega-3 fatty acids because they are unable to make trans double bonds. 2. Digestion (nutrients) a) The long polysaccharides synthesized by plants typically have linear structures and form myofibrils, whereas the long polysaccharides synthesized by animals have helical structures with considerable branching. b) Glycogen is a polysaccharide consisting of glucose molecules connected by 1-4 alpha linkages. c) Even though humans cannot directly digest cellulose, ingestion of cellulose has beneficial effects on GI motility and function. d) Glycogen, starch and cellulose are all carbohydrates made from the same monosaccharide. 3. Respiration (control of respiration / humans) a) Activation of stretch receptors in the bronchi and bronchioles during inspiration inhibits the respiratory center in the medulla. b) A small decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen in systemic arterial blood activates peripheral chemoreceptors resulting in an increase in respiratory drive. c) Neurons in the respiratory center in the medulla activate motoneurons in the cervical spinal cord that innervate inspiratory muscles. d) Changes in the partial pressure of oxygen in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) have little or no direct effect on respiratory drive. 4. Respiration (breath holding) a) Deep breathing fresh air prior to breath holding increases the amount of time an individual can hold his/her breath because it blows off carbon dioxide. b) Deep breathing fresh air prior to breath holding has little or no effect on the rate of oxygen consumption during breath holding. c) Deep breathing fresh air prior to breath holding has little or no effect on the rate of carbon dioxide production during breath holding. d) Deep breathing recycled air (i.e., in and out of a small bag) prior to breath holding markedly reduces the time an individual can hold his/her breath because it reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood. BIO 203 - Exam 3 Choose the INCORRECT answer May 11, 2011 page 1
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5. Respiration (shallow water blackout / human) a) The term “shallow water blackout” is misleading since it occurs during deep breath hold dives but but not during shallow ones. b) During a deep, breath hold dive, the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood decreases more slowly while a diver is descending (i.e., going down) compared to when he/she is ascending (i.e., coming back up). c)
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BIO 203_11 Exam 3 (0) post - BIO 203 - Exam 3 Choose the...

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