Gen_Bio_study_guide_Amiee - Copy

Gen_Bio_study_guide_Amiee - Copy - GENERAL BIOLOGY I /...

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Chapter 1 (Exploring Life) 1. Diagram the hierarchy of structural levels in biological organization from the simplest to the most complex level. ATOMS,MOLECULES,ORGANELLES,CELLS,TISSUES,ORGANS,ORGAN SYSTEM,ORGANISM,POPULATION,COMMUNITY,ECOSYSTEM,BIOSPHERE. 2. What are the two major dynamic processes of any ecosystem? CYCLING OF NUTRIENTS ONE WAY FLOW OF ENERGY FROM SUNLIGHT TO CONSUMERS. 3. Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. PROKARYOTIC CELLS LACK MEMBRANE ENCLOSED NUCLEUS & ORGANELLES. EUKARYOTIC CELLS HAVE MEMBRANE ENCLOSED NUCLEUS AND ORGANELLES. EX. (PROTISTS,PLANTS,FUNGI,ANIMALS) 4. Distinguish between positive and negative feedback. NEGATIVE FEEDBACK – ACCUMULATION OF AND END PRODUCT OF A PROCESS SLOWS DOWN THAT PROCESS. POSITIVE FEEDBACK – END PRODUCT SPEED UP ITS OWN PRODUCTION. 5. What is homeostasis? HOMEOSTASIS IS A STEADYSTATE PHYSIOLOGICAL STATE OF THE BODY. 6. What are the three domains of life? BACTERIA, ARCHAEA, EUKARYA 7. List and distinguish among the three kingdoms of multicellular eukaryotic life. PLANTAE – MOST PLANTS PRODUCE THEIR OWN SUGARS AND FOOD BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS. FUNGI – MOST FUNGI ARE DECOMPOSERS THAT ABSORB NUTRIENTS BY BREAKING DOWN DEAD ORGANISMS AND ORGANIC WASTES. ANIMALIA – ANIMALS OBTAIN FOOD BY INGESTING OTHER ORGANISMS. 8. Distinguish between discovery science and hypothesis-based science. DISCOVERY SCIENCE IS DESCRIPTIVE, DESCRIBES NATURAL STRUCTURES & PROCESSES AS ACCURATELY AS POSSIBLE THROUGH CAREFUL OBSERVATION & ANALYSIS OF DATA. HYPOTHESIS BASED SCIENCE – PREDICTIONS THAT CAN BE TESTED BY MAKING ADDITIONAL OBSERVATIONS OR PERFORMING EXPERIMENTS. 9. Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative data. QUANTITATIVE DATA IS GENERALLY RECORDED AS MEASUREMENTS QUALITATIVE DATA IS NORMALLY IN THE FORM OF RECORDED DESCRIPTION 10. Describe what is meant by a controlled experiment. A CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT IS ONE THAT IS DESIGNED TO COMPARE AN EXPERIMENTAL GROUP WITH A CONTROL GROUP. IDEALLY, THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP AND THE CONTROL GROUP DIFFER ONLY IN THE ONE FACTOR THAT THE EXPERIMENT IS DESIGNED TO TEST. Chapter 2 (The Chemical Context of Life) 11. Distinguish between an element and a compound. AN ELEMENT IS A SUBSTANCE THAT CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN INTO OTHER SUBSTANCES BY CHEMICAL REACTIONS. THERE ARE 92 NATURALLY OCCURING ELEMENTS, AND ABOUT 25 OF THESE ARE ESSENTIAL FOR LIFE. A COMPOUND IS A SUBSTANCE THAT CONSISTS OF TWO OR MORE ELEMENTS IN A FIXED RATION. EX: TABLE SALT – NACL (SODIUM CHLORIDE) SODIUM IS A METAL, AND CHLORINE IS A GAS, BUT THEY CAN COMBINE TO FORM TABLE SALT. 1
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Gen_Bio_study_guide_Amiee - Copy - GENERAL BIOLOGY I /...

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