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Lymphatics lectures(1) - The lymphatic system The lymphatic...

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4/4/11 1 The lymphatic system The lymphatic system The lymphatic system is a complex of organs, tissues and cells that are involved in the IMMUNE RESPONSE 1. Basics of the immune response 2. Histology of the lymphatic tissues and organs TWO LECTURES: The principal cells in immune responses are - LYMPHOCYTES - MACROPHAGES These cells are involved in two basic immune mechanisms: 1. Humoral response 2. Cell mediated response
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4/4/11 2 Humoral response is mediated by B lymphocytes and involves the synthesis and secretion of antibodies Antibodies act is a number of ways: - precipitate soluble antigens by crosslinking - agglutinate particulate antigens (and cells) - opsonise bacteria (bind to bacterial surface) - neutralise viruses (prevent viruses from adhering to cell membrane Cell mediated response is mediated by T lymphocytes There are a number of populations of T cells Helper T cells are activated by antigens and in turn …….. 1. Activate B cells 2. Generate 2 major effector mechanisms - cytotoxic cells - kill foreign cells -cells that release lymphokines - regulate many aspects of immune response e.g. attract and activate macrophages, stimulate proliferation and differentiation of B cells etc ANTIBODY STRUCTURE www.cod.edu/.../rundell/Anatomy/ben/ben.htm - Antibodies are made up of 2 identical heavy chains and 2 identical light chains - Each chain has a variable and a constant region
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4/4/11 3
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4/4/11 4 Common gene Specific Antibody Standard unfolded γ -globulin Ag combining site Folds to shape of antigen template and stabilized (eg. by S-S bonds) Antigen release Instructive Theory Selective Theory DNA DNA Specific Antibody Ag combining site Spontaneous folding in absence of antigen Specific gene ‘derepressed’ by antigen Ig peptide chains with specific amino acid sequence Clonal selection model Proposed by Macfarlane Burnet to explain the selective theory of antibody formation 1. Each lymphocyte has genetic information to make one antibody 2. Antibodies act as cell surface receptors 3. There are many different lymphocytes 4. Antigen binds to antibody that is a good fit 5. Antigen binding stimulates proliferation and differentiation
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