Silurian - Diversity of Life on Earth The Silurian Period...

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Unformatted text preview: Diversity of Life on Earth The Silurian Period Where we’ve been 0 Precambrian (4.6 Ba - 544 Ma) 0 Cambrian (542 - 488 Ma) 0 Ordovician (488 - 444 Ma) Brachiepocla and Mollusca establish and diversify Algae diversify and specialize Cnidaria diversifies Porifera establishes ._ _ . i... — .--"_ a} Ell-ll « “11' Cnidaria ancl Arth rope-cla establish Echinoicls establish The Lower Paleozoic Era The Paleozoic era included the origin and ear!)' diversifieatim of animals. land plants, and fungi. l g“ i. 0* W 5" lfifi 3 e3? 3 “ll R l l; “a? if *fie‘fifl? 1“ a??? .99 q. If i r — - an. .i e '14 ‘ I 3'11: u!" limb-“h Eflmll: Cari Fin! upland plant lime-ct Il‘lllfl‘iff. («elm-h; sump: mum [in mm I.“ leek ammunifll Emu- an Healing Hemp: “n ish: part: of guru“. mm wins] 'I Imp-Ind fil‘lllfi fol-I'm]... reli- E' W Shirk: Huh min: hustled imlfir If in "a, l'. mien all fish... HI-er- Much“ rldilllnnn .-" If 'I, glen-cl nimhfiilu el amphibian: ’3’ 'I. k. " r . l He.- 3 q A r 5|:me n-I Gan-dwin- Elm-u hold: Suepemninnl niluunlil hipumaineet Fugue Farms. flee-M caller much nf eu-Ieuive ice in In in: north Ind Gnu-Idem use. H3. Quilting at M lulu-inn. Chll net Gouda-Inn. to the Milli-nil.- mid. Mandarin Melanin: Hindi. Hellman-n. [innit III-aluli-flle “Ii-lion. What’s driving all this diversification? What’s driving all this diversification? 0 Climate change II Competition I Predation The Silurian Period 444 - 409 Ma The Paleozoic era included the origin and ear!)' diversifieatim of animals. land plants, and fungi. 9.. ‘1. 4‘ cl" 44 v 3 “1“ 4‘3" 44 4' a" 4‘51 .4? ‘9 fiifififififiwfifi f} 4"?" e5; =2" ea‘e‘lfifll caged“ We‘ll? fife-"L e“ * 44" 443‘?” Ell-Ila i 4 '14- ‘ l 3'11: “in limb.“ Eflml‘l Cari Fin! upland pliant lhuut Il‘lllfl‘lff. («elm-h; sump: mum [in mm I.“ leek Mflflnii-fil Emu- mlHo-HIin-g Hemp: “a ish: part: of guru“. mm “fig—5] 'I. flplfld gnu-i 1‘th reli- [ mm Shirk: Hull min: faulted dmlfir If in "a, 1: mien all fish. ll'l-lf- hunch“. rlllilllnn .-" If 'I, gene: nfmhfiilm el amphibian: ’5' 'I. . . 1i . .~ ‘ r . I.- 1 "r _' 4' " fife?— ‘4. “A... tmm{iiiil_ Eff _ - 5|:me n-I Gan-dun“ (Emu cold: fingernail.” niluunlil hipmaineet Fugue Farms. flee-M caller much nf eu-Ieuive ice in In in: north Ind Gm HIEIH‘H.BI:|1"TIQ at III-HE! lulu-inn. (Erna-I: net film to flu: mad:th mid. kplluliul Mullins Hindi. Hellfire-kn. CHI-lull infill-Elle rill-lion. First terrestrial plants What challenges do algae have to overcome to colonize land? First terrestrial plants What challenges do algae have to overcome to colonize land? + Dessication + Structure + Spore protection Division Psi|0phyta Psiiophyton 5p. (upper Silurian) Psiiotum sp. (a whisk fern, present-day) Interesting hypothesis... GLOBAL ELACIATIDNS + '1' GAMBHIAN EXPLOSION Plectemycetee FUNGI Pyrenemyeetee Candide {H} m"..th Sanehammycea [H] Archiaaeomycetea Uetilaginen'l'y'cetee , , H m an mywms I Baaadlemyeeta MumrelesrBIaeteelediales I Zygamymte! Chytrlde Ghy'tridiemymla Vascular plants PMS Mneaea Chlerephytan green algae Nematodes AN IMALS Anh rep-ode Vertebrates f'l PHOTE FIDZCIIC FHANEFIDZDIC 1 ,Eflfl 1,200 800 «see D Million years age Heckman et a]. ZOOI (Science 293: | l29-l I33) ‘ flmniotes f {3 353:5"; XXX/fl? 4 Pentium Ont-inning“ {bony fill-hail] " "II: 4 mm“: egg *1 Lug: 4 Lung: or lung duriuafivu Jaws " my; a ‘m' - mg m, m Gnathosto m ata (~440 Ma) 4 Vaml onlumn Amustrll ’d'llflflbrat' Evolution of jaws Gill slits Cranium O Happened only once _ . '~: :~. m ~ 0 Intricate arran gem ents in early fishes maan Class Insecta Heroin-mm thaoplera Hgmemm-Ta [Jiptem Lepidmwa [mm'm'p‘lurr : TIIULI‘uIri [Nahum (D'Lfiuwi'fd :fi'ulflw IJhJI} pl'sm1 Riven-ins DESIJPMfl- uniponnis. mniarugaarcr. me M'amau'ifaah Arm cert-3 -.-,v.-HE Present {- ] I; m ] IrTII icn 1.11am; ago] 1BR) ZIIIE' Permian L1UU Carboniferous Devonian Silurian Myriapoda (centipedes, millipedes) fossilized trackways (2 cmVV) Class Arachnida marine scorpion Why millipedes and centipedes before scorpions and spiders? Why millipedes and centipedes before scorpions and spiders? I Myriapods:detritivores 0 Arachnids: carnivores (insectivores) II Result: food for myriapods, no food for arachnids Why jaws before bones? The Silurian Period - Summary ‘ .di Coral reefs diversify (phylum?) What other animal groups are represented? ...
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Silurian - Diversity of Life on Earth The Silurian Period...

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