Principles of Animal Form _ Function

Principles of Animal Form _ Function - Principles of Animal...

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Principles of Animal Form & Function Physical laws and environmental constraints apply to ALL animals
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Many Common Problems Mechanics of movement (gravity, mass, resistance, buoyancy) Gas exchange Heat flux with the environment Activity Solutions to these challenges among animal groups show similarities, but also some striking and very informative differences. Animals are very adaptive.
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All Physiological Processes Require Energy Organic molecules in food Digestion and absorption Nutrient molecules in body cells Cellular respiration Biosynthesis: growth, storage, and reproduction Cellular work Heat Energy lost in feces Energy lost in urine Heat Heat External environment Animal body Heat Carbon skeletons ATP Energy in excess of immediate needs can be stored for future use, or invested into essential activities such as reproduction (yes, offspring are expensive in more ways than one) The greater the potential for utilizing energy (metabolism), the greater the flexibility or scope of other activities. Endotherms have a higher food requirement than ectotherms, but this allows endotherms a greater activity range Energy consumption of 1 human = 1 75-watt light bulb
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Metabolic Rates Metabolic rate increases with size, so bigger animals consume more oxygen than small However, if metabolic rate is divided by the animal’s mass, the metabolic rate per unit mass is lower for large than for smaller animals Thus, cost for endothermy decreases as organisms increase in size
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Endotherms vs Ectotherms Endotherms Ectotherm Annual energy expenditure (kcal/yr) 800,000 Basal metabolic rate Reproduction Temperature regulation costs Growth Activity costs 60-kg female human from temperate climate Total annual energy expenditures (a) 340,000 4-kg male Adélie penguin from Antarctica (brooding) 4,000 0.025-kg female deer mouse from temperate North America 8,000 4-kg female python from Australia Energy expenditure per unit mass (kcal/kg•day) 438 Deer mouse 233 Adélie penguin 36.5 Human 5.5 Python Energy expenditures per unit mass (kcal/kg•day) (b)
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Why humans can wrestle with alligators…and win Maximum metabolic rate (kcal/min; log scale) 500 100 50 10 5 1 0.5 0.1
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Principles of Animal Form _ Function - Principles of Animal...

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