Cross cultural psychology lecture 14(4)

Cross cultural psychology lecture 14(4) - Part1...

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Culture and Social Behavior – Part 1 Self and Identity
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Concept of Self The self concept is the accumulation of knowledge about the self, such as beliefs regarding personality traits, physical characteristics, abilities, values, goals, and roles. Explains the how and why of a person’s behavior The internal attributes of the self which determine thoughts, feelings, and actions including our relationships with others Not necessarily grounded in reality
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Origins of Self Part of one’s cultural worldview. Culture has set of values that are important Self concept –person’s attempt to live up to and embrace these cultural values but as interpreted by the individual and so unique. One theory–driven by terror management theory Fear of dying Create higher order value to life to add meaning
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Cultural Differences in Self (Markus and Kitayama 1991) If cultures have different world views and different values result then: Cultures should have differences in self concept One salient difference that might affect self concept Individualism–Western cultures Self concept an independent, separate entity Cultural goal to encourage uniqueness and independence Self esteem based on success of this effort to be unique Focus is on one’s personal internal attributes – expressing them in public and verifying them in private
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Collectivist Self Concept Collectivist–non Western cultures Self concept –inseparable from social context and others in that context Primary task to maintain interdependence among individuals Goal to adjust oneself to group, to be sympathetic, to occupy and play assigned roles and to engage in actions deemed appropriate by group Self Esteem: A function of how well a person develops a satisfactory relation to group Focus on interdependent status, to meet and create duties, obligations Have knowledge of internal attributes but less salient and not focus
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Evidence favoring this theory How do individuals in different cultures describe themselves: Western – individualistic cultures Focus on internal attributes Non –Western – collectivistic cultures Focus on relationships with others Subjects asked to make a list of their characteristics American subjects generated abstract traits–e.g., “ I am intelligent, attractive”, etc. Asian subjects more likely to generate traits in social context (e.g., “I am sociable with close friends”)
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Evidence favoring theory Triandis Interdependent cultures – China, Japan, and Korea Describe themselves with social categories, relationships and groups to which they belong E.g., China – 80% characterized themselves by membership in various groups Bochner looked at self perception statements Malaysian, Australian and British All three cultures described themselves according to both personal attributes and group memberships Malaysian’s produced more collectivistic responses and fewer
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Cross cultural psychology lecture 14(4) - Part1...

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