Cross-Cultural Studies lecture 8(3)

Cross-Cultural Studies lecture 8(3) -...

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Cross Cultural Studies of Emotion Outline I. Three approaches to cross cultural study of emotions a. Emotion is universal and probably biologically based – based on comparative research of emotional expression (facial, voice, gestures) b. Emotions are cultural states developed primarily as social/cognitive constructions that differ from one culture to another–based on ethnographic studies and linguistic analyses c. Emotions are made up of a set of components. Some components are universal whereas others depend on cultural context.
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Emerging Emotions Experiencing and Expressing Emotions Joy, anger, and fear are considered basic emotions. Also, disgust, sadness, and surprise that appear later. Basic emotions consist of: A subjective feeling A physiological change An overt behavior
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Emerging Emotions Measuring Emotions Facial expressions indicate emotional state. Infants all over the world express emotions similarly, suggesting biological programming. By 5 6 months, infants’ facial expressions change in reaction to events. Close resemblance between adult and infant smiles suggest facial expressions have similar meaning.
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Emerging Emotions Development of Basic Emotions At 2 3 months, children begin smiling in response to human faces (joy?). These are called social smiles. Around 6 months, children show stranger wariness in the presence of an unfamiliar adult and separation anxiety/distress (fear?)
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Emerging Emotions Emergence of Complex Emotions Complex emotions emerge around 18 24 months. Complex emotions include: Guilt Embarrassment Pride Disgust
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Emerging Emotions At 4 6 months, infants can distinguish facial expression and the emotions they portray. Infants look to parents’ face for cues to help interpret a situation in social referencing.
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Emerging Emotions Regulating Emotions By 4 6 months, children can use simple strategies to regulate their emotions–self settling, self distraction. Older children and adolescents Become less dependent upon others to control their emotions. Begin to use mental strategies to regulate emotions. Look for ways to regulate emotions that work. They adapt the method to the situation. A characteristic of temperament–self regulation
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Emotional expression is universal and biologically based Basic premise: emotions are associated with biological processes characteristic of the human species. Facial expression of emotion Young infants facial expressions of emotion match adults are able to interpret emotions relatively early Facial expressions of infants appear similar across various cultures
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Facial Expression Ekman Research on adult recognition of emotion in faces Fore in East New Guinea. Fore: Ekman has photos of Fore that show range of facial expressions of emotion
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This note was uploaded on 05/23/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 2250 taught by Professor Rollins,howard during the Fall '10 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Cross-Cultural Studies lecture 8(3) -...

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