Cross cultural psychology lecture 5

Cross cultural psychology lecture 5 - HumanDevelopmentand...

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Human Development and Culture –Part 2
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Temperament Definition: individual differences in constitutionally based reactivity and self regulation (Rothbart) Assumed to be primarily biologically/genetically based–present from very early in life (1 st year) Thought to be from 3 to 5 temperament categories
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Types of Temperament Original Thomas and Chess (1977) study (10 basic dimensions but reduced to three Easy; difficult; slow to warm up More recently (five types): Activity Level–physical and motor activity Positive affect – expresses pleasure, enthusiasm and contentment Persistence–T ime devoted to an activity; resistance to distraction Inhibition–Extent of shyness and withdrawal particularly in unfamiliar settings Negative affect
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Temperament: heredity or environment? Both: Heredity: Identical twins more temperamentally alike than fraternal twins – activity level, social fearfulness, persistence, and proneness to anger Environment Infants with difficult temperament often have mothers are abrupt in dealing with them and lack confidence Positive happy children (laugh a lot, smile) seems tied in part to environment
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Stability of Temperament Somewhat stable throughout infancy and toddler years: Active fetus likely to be active infant and more likely to be a difficult, unadaptive infant Newborns who cry under moderate stress cry when stressed as 5 month olds Inhibited 2 year olds are shy at 4 years old Temperament is a predisposition for future which can be modified by experience Leads directly to types of personality observed in adults
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Goodness of fit: Temperament, enviornment and Parent Child Interactions Parent child interactions depend to some extent on the compatibility of parent and child temperament – good match yields good outcome; bad match can cause later problems for child e.g., Parents with authoritative styles may have trouble with difficult infant/child and move toward higher level of authoritarian style Difficult temperament and attachment
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Temperament and Cultural Differences Calmness and quiet versus more activity and
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This note was uploaded on 05/23/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 2250 taught by Professor Rollins,howard during the Fall '10 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Cross cultural psychology lecture 5 - HumanDevelopmentand...

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