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Cross-Cultural Psychology lecture 6(2)

Cross-Cultural Psychology lecture 6(2) - HumanDevelopment...

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Cross Cultural Psychology Human Development – Part 3 Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory and Moral Development
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Piaget’s Theory
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The Onset of Thinking: Piaget’s Account Basic Principles of Cognitive Development Children make sense of the world through categories of related events, objects, and knowledge, called schemes. Children adapt to their environment as they develop by adding and refining their schemes. Schemes change from physical, to functional, to conceptual, and to abstract as the child develops – four stages.
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The Onset of Thinking: Piaget’s Account Assimilation and Accommodation When new experiences fit into existing schemes it is called assimilation . When schemes have to be modified as a consequence of new experiences, it is called accommodation . Assimilation is required to benefit from experience – acting on novel input using current scheme. Accommodation allows for dealing with completely new data or experience scheme itself revised to cope with new input.
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The Onset of Thinking: Piaget’s Account Equilibration & Stages of Cognitive Development Equilibrium exists when there is a balance between assimilation and accommodation. Disequilibrium exists when more accommodation is occurring than assimilation. Equilibration takes place when inadequate schemes are replaced with more advanced and mature schemes. Equilibration occurs three times during development, resulting in 4 stages of cognitive development.
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The Onset of Thinking: Piaget’s Stages Sensorimotor Thinking – six substages: note name of this State (senses and motor action) Substage 1: Exercising Reflexes (0 1 month) Infants interact with the world through responding reflexively to stimuli. Substage 2: Primary Circular Reactions (1 4 months) Infants learn that they can purposefully move or stimulate their body and they repeat these actions. Substage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions (4 8 months) Infants discover that they can affect objects and they repeat the action in order to achieve the same effect.
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Piaget’s Stages Sensorimotor Thinking (cont.) Substage 4: Behaving Intentionally (8 12 months) Infants engage in deliberate behavior to achieve some end result. Substage 5: Experimenting (12 18 months) Tertiary Circular Reactions trying old behaviors on new objects to see results. Substage 6: Using Symbols (18 24 months) Words and gestures are used to represent objects and desires.
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The Onset of Thinking: Piaget’s Pre Operational Stage Preoperational Thinking (about what children cannot do!) Egocentrism The child is unable to see the world from any viewpoint other than their own.
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