Cross-Cultural Psychology lecture 6(2)

Cross-Cultural Psychology lecture 6(2) - Cross ‐ Cultural...

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Unformatted text preview: Cross ‐ Cultural Psychology Human Development – Part 3 Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory and Moral Development Piaget’s Theory The Onset of Thinking: Piaget’s Account • Basic Principles of Cognitive Development – Children make sense of the world through categories of related events, objects, and knowledge, called schemes. – Children adapt to their environment as they develop by adding and refining their schemes. – Schemes change from physical, to functional, to conceptual, and to abstract as the child develops – four stages. The Onset of Thinking: Piaget’s Account • Assimilation and Accommodation – When new experiences fit into existing schemes it is called assimilation . – When schemes have to be modified as a consequence of new experiences, it is called accommodation . – Assimilation is required to benefit from experience – acting on novel input using current scheme. Accommodation allows for dealing with completely new data or experience – scheme itself revised to cope with new input. The Onset of Thinking: Piaget’s Account • Equilibration & Stages of Cognitive Development – Equilibrium exists when there is a balance between assimilation and accommodation. – Disequilibrium exists when more accommodation is occurring than assimilation. – Equilibration takes place when inadequate schemes are replaced with more advanced and mature schemes. – Equilibration occurs three times during development, resulting in 4 stages of cognitive development. The Onset of Thinking: Piaget’s Stages • Sensorimotor Thinking – six substages: note name of this State (senses and motor action) – Substage 1: Exercising Reflexes (0 ‐ 1 month) • Infants interact with the world through responding reflexively to stimuli. – Substage 2: Primary Circular Reactions (1 ‐ 4 months) • Infants learn that they can purposefully move or stimulate their body and they repeat these actions. – Substage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions (4 ‐ 8 months) • Infants discover that they can affect objects and they repeat the action in order to achieve the same effect. Piaget’s Stages • Sensorimotor Thinking (cont.) – Substage 4: Behaving Intentionally (8 ‐ 12 months) • Infants engage in deliberate behavior to achieve some end result. – Substage 5: Experimenting (12 ‐ 18 months) • Tertiary Circular Reactions ‐ trying old behaviors on new objects to see results. – Substage 6: Using Symbols (18 ‐ 24 months) • Words and gestures are used to represent objects and desires. The Onset of Thinking: Piaget’s Pre ‐ Operational Stage • Preoperational Thinking (about what children cannot do!) – Egocentrism • The child is unable to see the world from any viewpoint other than their own....
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This note was uploaded on 05/23/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 2250 taught by Professor Rollins,howard during the Fall '10 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Cross-Cultural Psychology lecture 6(2) - Cross ‐ Cultural...

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