Cross-Cultural psychology lecture 12-1(2)

Cross-Cultural psychology lecture 12-1(2) -...

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Cross Cultural Psychology: Abnormal Behavior
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Cross Cultural Issues: Psychological Disorders Abnormal behavior or states: Features of an individuals behavior or experience that have been classified as an illness or disorder not just an eccentricity Have significant duration (months not days) Have a disruptive impact on the person’s life Diagnosis: U. S. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV–latest diagnostic manual from APA – American Psychiatric Assoc.) Cross culturally: International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders (ICD 10)
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Ten Categories of the ICD 10 1. Organic mental disorders – Alzheimer’s disease and dementia such as Parkinson’s Disease) 2. Mental disorders due to psychoactive substance use such as alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, sedatives, cocaine, etc. 3. Schizophrenia and delusional disorders such as paranoia 4. Affective disorders such as manic and depressive mood disorders 5. Neurotic disorders such as phobia, anxiety, obsession, neurasthenia, hypochondria 6. Physiological dysfunction such as anorexia, obesity, insomnia 7. Personality disorders such as impulsive, dependent personality, pathological gambling 8. Mental retardation 9. Developmental disorders such as language or reading problems, and autism 10. Childhood disorders such as sibling rivalry, tics, bedwetting, and stuttering
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Cross cultural issues 1. Do the same psychological disorders occur across cultures? 2. Are the symptoms identical or do presenting symptoms vary across cultures 3. Is the incidence of occurrence of various disorders the same across cultures? 4. Are there unique psychological disorders that occur in only one or a small number of cultures?
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Theoretical Issues Arise If the same disorders occur, in approximately the same frequency, the symptoms are similar and if no unique disorders appear, then the absolutist theoretical position is upheld. If the same disorders do not occur across cultures or if the incidence varies widely across cultures or if the symptoms vary significantly, and if there are unique disorders that occur in some cultures, then the relativist theoretical position is upheld
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Compromise A set of central symptoms for the most common mental disorders appears in almost all cultures However, there may be peripheral symptoms that are specific to a particular culture There may also be specific culture bound mental disorders that appear in only a small number of cultures Thus, universalist theory is supported
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Major Disorders where central symptoms are similar Schizophrenia Common symptoms Lack of insight Auditory hallucinations Delusions Flatness of affect Disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior Incidence–1.5 4.2 per 100,000 population
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Schizophrenia Cultural differences in reporting Two studies have compared diagnosis of schizophrenia across cultures New York (61.5%) versus London (33.9%) of in
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Cross-Cultural psychology lecture 12-1(2) -...

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