Life's Chemistry

Life's Chemistry - Learning Objectives To better understand...

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1 Learning Objectives To better understand the chemical nature of life To better understand the nature and importance of water for life To better understand the nature and importance of carbon for life To better understand the macromolecules that make up life including nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids What is life? What is life made of ? Answer: Elements Elements of Life Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen Phosphorous Sulfur Some Basic Chemistry Protons Positive charge Located in nucleus Mass of one mass unit Number determines element Neutrons Neutral charge Located in nucleus Mass of one mass unit Number may differs (isotopes) Electrons Negative charge Located in clouds around nucleus Mass negligible Involved in chemical bonds Atomic Nucleus Electron Cloud
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2 Shell Models of Atoms Atomic number - number of protons within the nucleus of an atom Electron Shells - represent energy levels of electrons that surround the nucleus (lower shells filled first) Octet Rule - all elements gain or lose electrons to fill the outermost shell Electronegativity - measure of how much an atom will tend to pull electrons from other elements in order to fill the outermost shell 2 electrons 8 electrons Life’s elements form multiple bonds Hydrogen Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen (4 bonds) (4 bonds) (2 bonds) (3 bonds) Electronegativity Outer 4 electrons 5 electrons 6 electrons Shell 1 electron Some bonds are… double bonds - sharing of 4 electrons triple bonds - sharing of 6 electrons Double bond (Carbon dioxide)
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3 Some bonds are… Polar bonds + Non-polar Polar + - - Nature of Water Properties of Water 1. Small 2. Angular 3. Polar - attraction between hydrogen and oxygen) - - + + Emergent Properties of Water Cohesive High Specific heat Good Solvent Life is Carbon Based 1. Carbon is Abundant 2. Carbon is Tetravalent (forms skeletons) 3. Carbon bonds to many elements (Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen) 4. Carbon forms polar/non-polar bonds
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4 Polarized Electrons Non polar Polar Water repels non-polar molecules Water dissolves polar molecules + Polar + - - Hydroxyl OH Amino NH3 Phosphate PO4 Carboxyllic Acid CO2 Carbonyl CO Common Polar Functional Groups A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks called monomers . Biological macromolecules are made from only 40-50 common monomers. Classes of life’s organic molecules that are polymers: - Nucleic acids - Proteins - Carbohydrates - (Lipids) Macromolecules are polymers Breakdown and synthesis of polymers are central to cellular metabolism Monomers Polymers Cellular macromolecules Food molecules Catabolic Anabolic
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5 Cellulose Glycogen, Starch Glucose (6) (blood) Pyruvate (3) + CO2 Acetyl CoA Fats (2) Proteins
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This note was uploaded on 05/23/2011 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Lanno during the Spring '08 term at Ohio State.

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Life's Chemistry - Learning Objectives To better understand...

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