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AnthroBio 161 Midterm II Review Guide

AnthroBio 161 Midterm II Review Guide - AnthroBio 161...

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AnthroBio 161 11.18.10 Midterm II Review Guide Primate Ecology Ecology: competition and niche separation; relations and interactions between organisms and their environment, including other organisms Basics of primates: water, protein, carbs, fats, vitamins and minerals (other animals, fruits, flowers, sap, roots, leaves, stems) Most strepsirhines need insects and gum or fruit Most haplorhines need insects or leaves and fruit Small primates need: high quality food that is easily digestible; food does not have to be abundant Large primates need: low energy requirements; food must be abundant Kay’s threshold: 500 grams is the upper threshold for insectivores, but it is the lower threshold for folivores Folivore: eat in bouts and rest in between; little intragroup competition; smaller home ranges and day ranges Frugivore and insectivore: spend more time foraging and less time resting; more intragroup competition; travel further with larger home and day ranges Some primates are territorial because they’re defending their resources and their mates Diurnal: active during the day, some strepsirines and all haplorhines Nocturnal: active at night, many strepsirines Cathemeral: variable activity pattern; some species of genus lemur Howler and Spider Monkeys: occupy lowland rainforests of Eastern Ecuador; overlapping territories; differences in diet, social organization, locomotion, territoriality Howler monkeys – folivores; relatively inactive; smaller home ranger and short day ranger; small usually single male groups; highly territotial Spider monkeys – frugivores; active; frequent travel patches; multi-male/multi-female fusion groups; not as territorial as howlers Primate Mating
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All female primates invest substantially in their offspring, there’s a limited number of offspring she’ll have because of this behavior Parental care: carry, provide protection from predators, provide shelter and food, play with… Male investment in offspring depends on costs and benefits Parental investment between males and females will differ if acquiring additional mates is easy and if the fitness of offspring raised by one parent is high Tamarin groups that contain several males produce more surviving infants than groups with one male Primary determinants of reproductive success in females – reproductive mistakes are very costly, reproductive success is largely determined by access to resources for herself and her offspring Primary determinants of reproductive success in males – can limit investment in offspring if female can successfully raise infant alone, reproductive success of largely determined by access to ovulating females In Hanuman langur groups at Ramnagar, high-ranking males father the majority of infants in their groups, far more than expected if all males were equally likely to sire infants. Females compete for access to resources; competition results in dominance hierarchy.
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AnthroBio 161 Midterm II Review Guide - AnthroBio 161...

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