chapter4 - 4 The Structure of Atoms Chapter Outline Chapter...

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The Structure of 4 Atoms
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hapter Outline Chapter Outline Subatomic Particles 1. Fundamental Particles 2. The Discovery of Electrons anal Rays and Protons 3. Canal Rays and Protons 4. Rutherford and the Nuclear Atom 5. Atomic Number 6. Neutrons 7. Mass Number and Isotopes ass spectrometry and Isotopic Abundance 8. Mass spectrometry and Isotopic Abundance 2
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hapter Outline Chapter Outline 9. The Atomic Weight Scale and Atomic Weights 10. The Periodic Table: Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids he Electronic Structures of Atoms The Electronic Structures of Atoms 11. Electromagnetic radiation 12. The Photoelectric Effect 13. Atomic Spectra and the Bohr Atom 14. The Wave Nature of the Electron 3
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hapter Outline Chapter Outline 15. The Quantum Mechanical Picture of the Atom 16. Quantum Numbers 17. Atomic Orbitals 8 lectron Configurations 18. Electron Configurations 19. Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism 20. The Periodic Table and Electron Configurations 4
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Fundamental Particles Three fundamental particles make up atoms. The following table lists these particles together with their article ass (amu harge masses and their charges. Particle Mass (amu ) Charge lectron (e - .00054858 - Electron (e ) 0.00054858 1 Proton (p,p + ) 1.0073 +1 Neutron(n,n 0 ) 1.0087 0 5
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The Discovery of Electrons • Humphrey Davy in the early 1800’s passed electricity through compounds and noted and concluded that: – the compounds decomposed into elements. – compounds are held together by electrical forces. • Michael Faraday in 1832-1833 realized that the amount of reaction that occurs during electrolysis is proportional to the electrical current passed through the compounds. 6
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The Discovery of Electrons • Cathode Ray Tubes experiments performed in the late 1800’s & early 1900’s. – Consist of two electrodes sealed in a glass tube containing a gas at very low pressure. – When a voltage is applied to the cathodes a glow discharge is emitted. 7
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The Discovery of Electrons • These “rays” are emitted from cathode (- end) and travel to anode (+ end). – Cathode Rays must be negatively charged! J Thomson modified the cathode ray • J.J. Thomson modified the cathode ray tube experiments in 1897 by adding two adjustable voltage electrodes. – Studied the amount that the cathode ray beam was deflected by additional electric field. 8
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The Discovery of Electrons • Modifications to the basic cathode ray tube experiment. 9
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The Discovery of Electrons • Thomson used his modification to measure the charge to mass ratio of electrons. Charge to mass ratio /m = 75882 x 10 oulomb/g e/m = -1.75882 x 10 8 coulomb/g • Thomson named the cathode rays electrons. homson is considered to be the Thomson is considered to be the “discoverer of electrons”. 10 • TV sets and computer screens are cathode ray tubes.
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The Discovery of Electrons • Robert A. Millikan won the Nobel Prize in 1923 for his famous oil-drop experiment.
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This note was uploaded on 05/24/2011 for the course ENGINEERIN 1 taught by Professor Lee during the Spring '11 term at Sungkyunkwan.

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chapter4 - 4 The Structure of Atoms Chapter Outline Chapter...

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