chapter5 - 5 Chemical Periodicity Chapter Goals Chapter...

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Chemical 5 Periodicity
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hapter Goals Chapter Goals 1. More About the Periodic Table Periodic Properties of the Elements 2. Atomic Radii nization Energy 3. Ionization Energy 4. Electron Affinity 5. Ionic Radii 6. Electronegativity 2
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hapter Goals Chapter Goals Chemical Reactions and Periodicity 7. Hydrogen & the Hydrides Hydrogen Reactions of Hydrogen and the Hydrides 8. Oxygen & the Oxides xygen and Ozone Oxygen and Ozone Reactions of Oxygen and the Oxides ombustion Reactions Combustion Reactions Combustion of Fossil Fuels and Air Pollution 3
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ore About the Periodic Table More About the Periodic Table • Establish a classification scheme of the elements based on their electron configurations. Noble Gases – All of them have completely filled electron shells. • Since they have similar electronic structures, their chemical reactions are similar. – He 1s 2 –Ne [He ] 2s 2 2p 6 r e] 3s p – Ar [Ne] 3s 2 3p 6 – Kr [Ar] 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 e r] 5s 2 d 10 p 6 4 – Xe [Kr] 5s 4d 5p –Rn [Xe ] 6s 2 4f 14 5d 10 6p 6
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ore About the Periodic Table More About the Periodic Table Representative Elements – Are the elements in A groups on periodic chart. • These elements will have their “last” electron in an outer s or p orbital. • These elements have fairly regular variations in their properties. 5
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ore About the Periodic Table More About the Periodic Table d -Transition Elements – Elements on periodic chart in B roups groups. – Sometimes called transition metals. • Each metal has d electrons. –n s (n-1) d configurations • These elements make the transition from metals to onmetals nonmetals. • Exhibit smaller variations from w- - w than the 6 row to row than the representative elements.
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ore About the Periodic Table More About the Periodic Table f - transition metals – Sometimes called inner transition metals. • Electrons are being added to f orbitals. • Electrons are being added two shells below the valence shell! onsequently very slight Consequently, very slight variations of properties from one element to another. Outermost electrons have the greatest influence on the hemical properties of 7 chemical properties of elements.
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Periodic Properties of the Elements Atomic Radii Ionization Energy Electron Affinity nic Radii Ionic Radii Electronegativity 8
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tomic Radii Atomic Radii • Atomic radii describes the relative sizes of atoms. • Atomic radii increase within a column going from the top to the bottom of the periodic table. tomic radii decrease within a row going • Atomic radii decrease within a row going from left to right on the periodic table. his last fact seems contrary to intuition – This last fact seems contrary to intuition. – How does nature make the elements smaller ven though the electron number is increasing?
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chapter5 - 5 Chemical Periodicity Chapter Goals Chapter...

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