chapter1 - 1 The Foundations of Chemistry Chapter Goals...

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The Foundations of 1 Chemistry
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hapter Goals Chapter Goals 1. Matter and Energy 2. Chemistry – A Molecular View of Matter 3. States of Matter 4. Chemical and Physical Properties . hemical and Physical Changes 5 C e ca a d ys ca C a ges 6. Mixtures, Substances, Compounds, and Elements 7. Measurements in Chemistry nits of Measurement 2 8. Units of Measurement
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hapter Goals Chapter Goals 9. Use of Numbers 10. The Unit Factor Method (Dimensional Analysis) 11. Percentage 12. Density and Specific Gravity 13. Heat and Temperature 14. Heat Transfer and the Measurement of Heat 3
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atter and Energy ocabulary Matter and Energy - Vocabulary • Chemistry cience that describes matter s properties the changes Science that describes matter – its properties, the changes it undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany those processes • Matter Anything that has mass and occupies space. • Energy The capacity to do work or transfer heat. • Scientific (natural) law A general statement based the observed behavior of matter which no exceptions are known 4 to which no exceptions are known.
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atural Laws Natural Laws • Law of Conservation of Mass aw of Conservation of Energy Law of Conservation of Energy • Law of Conservation of Mass and Energy – Einstein’s Thoery of Relativity – E=mc 2 5
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cientific Method Scientific Method • Observation ypothesis Hypothesis • Observation or experiment • Theory bservation or experiment • Observation or experiment • Law 6
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A Molecular View Dalton’s Atomic Theory Dalton’s atomic theory summarized the nature of matter as known in 1808 1) An element is composed of extremely small indivisible particles called atoms. 2) All atoms of a given element have identical properties, which differ from those of other elements. 3) Atoms cannot be created, destroyed, or transformed into toms of another element atoms of another element. 4) Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine with each other in small whole- number ratios. 5) The relative numbers and kinds of atoms are constant in given compound. 7 a given compound.
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A Molecular View Some Definitions •A n atom is the smallest particle of an element that maintains its chemical identity through all chemical and physical changes. • Fundamental particles are the basic building blocks of atoms; they consist of electrons , protons , and neutrons . molecule is the smallest particle of an lement or compound that can have a stable element or compound that can have a stable independent existence. 8
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tates of Matter States of Matter • Solids 9
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tates of Matter States of Matter • Solids iquids Liquids 10
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tates of Matter States of Matter • Solids iquids Liquids • Gases 11
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tates of Matter States of Matter • Change States – heating ooling cooling 12
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tates of Matter States of Matter • Changes in state require changes in energy.
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chapter1 - 1 The Foundations of Chemistry Chapter Goals...

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