chapter2 - 2 Chemical Formulas and Composition and...

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Chemical Formulas nd Composition 2 and Composition Stoichiometry 1
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hapter Goals Chapter Goals 1. Chemical Formulas 2. Ions and Ionic Compounds 3. Names and Formulas of Some Ionic ompounds Compounds 4. Atomic Weights 5. The Mole 2
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hapter Goals Chapter Goals 6. Formula Weights, Molecular Weights, and Moles 7. Percent Composition and Formulas of Compounds 8. Derivation of Formulas from Elemental Composition 9. Determination of Molecular Formulas 10. Some Other Interpretations of Chemical Formulas 11. Purity of Samples 3
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hemical Formulas Chemical Formulas • Chemical formula shows the chemical omposition of the substance composition of the substance. – ratio of the elements present in the molecule or compound • He, Au, Na – monatomic elements H C l iatomic elements O 2 , H 2 , Cl 2 diatomic elements •O 3 , P 4 , S 8 - more complex elements C ompounds • H 2 O, C 12 H 22 O 11 – compounds Substance consists of two or more elements 4
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hemical Formulas Chemical Formulas Compound 1 Molecule Contains HCl 1 H atom & 1 Cl atom H atoms & 1 O atom H 2 O 2 H atoms & 1 O atom NH 3 1 N atom & 3 H atoms C 3 H 8 3 C atoms & 8 H atoms 5
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ns and Ionic Compounds Ions and Ionic Compounds • Ions are atoms or groups of atoms that possess an electric charge. • Two basic types of ions: – Positive ions or cations • one or more electrons less than neutral •Na + , Ca 2+ , Al 3+ H + - olyatomic cation NH 4 polyatomic cation – Negative ions or anions • one or more electrons more than neutral •F - , O 2- , N 3- •SO 4 2- , PO 4 3- - polyatomic anions 6
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ns and Ionic Compounds Ions and Ionic Compounds • Sodium chloride – table salt is an ionic compound 7
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Names and Formulas of Some Ionic Compounds • Table 2-1 gives names of several molecular compounds. – You must know all of the molecular compounds from Table 2-2. • Some examples are: O - ulfuric acid H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid –FeBr 2 - iron(II) bromide H thanol – C 2 H 5 OH - ethanol 8
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Names and Formulas of Some Ionic Compounds • Table 2-2 displays the formulas, charges, and names of some common ions – You must know the names, formulas, and harges of the common ions in table 2- charges of the common ions in table 2 3. • Some examples are: – Anions - Cl 1- , OH 1- , SO 4 2- , PO 4 3- – Cations - Na 1+ , NH 1+ , Ca 2+ , Al 3+ 4 9
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Names and Formulas of Some Ionic Compounds • Formulas of ionic compounds are determined by the charges of the ions.
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chapter2 - 2 Chemical Formulas and Composition and...

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