chapter6 - 6 Some Types of Chemical Chemical Reactions...

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Some Types of hemical 6 Chemical Reactions
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hapter Six Goals Chapter Six Goals 1. Aqueous Solutions: An Introduction 2. Reactions in Aqueous Solutions aming Some Inorganic Compounds Naming Some Inorganic Compounds 5. Naming Binary Compounds aming Ternary Acids and Their Salts 6. Naming Ternary Acids and Their Salts Classifying Chemical Reactions xidation- eduction Reactions: An Introduction 7. Oxidation Reduction Reactions: An Introduction 8. Combination Reactions 9. Decomposition Reactions 10. Displacement Reactions 11. Metathesis Reactions 2 ummary of Reaction Types 2 12. Summary of Reaction Types 13. Synthesis Question
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Aqueous Solutions: An Introduction 1. Electrolytes and Extent of Ionization Aqueous solutions consist of a solute dissolved in water. Classification of solutes: onelectrolytes olutes that do not conduct Nonelectrolytes solutes that do not conduct electricity in water xamples: Examples: •C 2 H 5 OH - ethanol 3
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Aqueous Solutions: An Introduction •C 6 H 12 O 6 - glucose (blood sugar) H C OH H O C H H H C C CC O H H 4 HO H
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Aqueous Solutions: An Introduction •C 12 H 22 O 11 - sucrose (table sugar) C H 2 O H C O C C H H H CC O H H O H OH H O C O C C H 2 H H O H O H 5 C C O HH C H 2 O H
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Aqueous Solutions: An Introduction • The reason nonelectrolytes do not conduct electricity is because they do not form ions in solution. ns conduct electricity in solution ions conduct electricity in solution 6
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Aqueous Solutions: An Introduction Classification of solutes – strong electrolytes - conduct electricity extremely ell in dilute aqueous solutions well in dilute aqueous solutions Examples of strong electrolytes 1. HCl, HNO 3 , etc. strong soluble acids aOH KOH etc 2. NaOH, KOH, etc. strong soluble bases aCl KBr etc 3. NaCl, KBr, etc. soluble ionic salts ionize in water essentially 100% 7
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Aqueous Solutions: An Introduction Classification of solutes weak electrolytes - conduct electricity poorly y yp y in dilute aqueous solutions H OOH (COOH) 1. CH 3 COOH, (COOH) 2 weak acids 8
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Aqueous Solutions: An Introduction 2. NH 3 , Fe(OH) 3 weak bases 3. some soluble covalent salts nize in water much less than 100% ionize in water much less than 100% 9
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Aqueous Solutions: An Introduction 2. Strong and Weak Acids cids are substances that generate H + Acids are substances that generate H in aqueous solutions. Strong acids ionize 100% in water. ( ) () - aq aq % 100 g Cl H HCl + + 10
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Aqueous Solutions: An Introduction 2. Strong and Weak Acids cids are substances that generate H + Acids are substances that generate H in aqueous solutions. Strong acids ionize 100% in water. 00% () ( ) ( ) - aq 3 aq 3 100% 2 3 NO + O H O H HNO + ⎯ → + l - O H O NO or 2 + 11 ( ) ( ) aq 3 aq 3 NO + H HNO
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Aqueous Solutions: An Introduction Some Strong Acids and Their Anions ormula ame Formula Name 1. HCl hydrochloric acid 2. HBr hydrobromic acid 3. HI hydroiodic acid 4. HNO 3 nitric acid 5. H SO sulfuric acid 2 4 6. HClO 3 chloric acid . ClO erchloric acid 12 7. HClO 4 perchloric acid
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Aqueous Solutions: An Introduction
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