chapter7 - 7 Chemical Bonding Bonding Chapter Goals Chapter...

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hemical Bonding 7 Chemical Bonding
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hapter Goals Chapter Goals 1. Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms nic Bonding Ionic Bonding 2. Formation of Ionic Compounds Covalent Bonding ormation of Covalent Bonds 3. Formation of Covalent Bonds 4. Bond Lengths and Bond Energies 5. Lewis Formulas for Molecules and olyatomic Ions 2 Polyatomic Ions
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hapter Goals Chapter Goals 6. Writing Lewis Formulas: The Octet Rule ormal Charges 7. Formal Charges 8. Writing Lewis Formulas: Limitations of the ctet Rule Octet Rule 9. Resonance 10. Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds 11. Dipole Moments p 12. The Continuous Range of Bonding Types 3
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troduction Introduction • Attractive forces that hold atoms together in compounds are called chemical bonds. • The electrons involved in bonding are sually those in the outermost (valence) usually those in the outermost (valence) shell. 4
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troduction Introduction • Chemical bonds are classified into two types: o Ionic bonding results from electrostatic ttractions among ions which are formed attractions among ions, which are formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another. ovalent bonding sults from sharing one o Covalent bonding results from sharing one or more electron pairs between two atoms. 5
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Comparison of Ionic and Covalent Compounds • Melting point comparison – Ionic compounds are usually solids with high melting points • Typically > 400 o C – Covalent compounds are gases, liquids, or solids with low melting points • Typically < 300 o C • Solubility in polar solvents – Ionic compounds are generally soluble Covalent compounds are generally insoluble 6 pg y
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Comparison of Ionic and Covalent Compounds • Solubility in polar solvents – Ionic compounds are generally soluble – Covalent compounds are generally insoluble olubility in nonpolar solvents Solubility in nonpolar solvents – Ionic compounds are generally insoluble – Covalent compounds are generally soluble 7
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Comparison of Ionic and Covalent Compounds • Conductivity in molten solids or liquids – Ionic compounds generally conduct electricity • They contain mobile ions – Covalent compounds generally do not conduct electricity • Conductivity in aqueous solutions nic compounds generally conduct electricity – Ionic compounds generally conduct electricity • They contain mobile ions – Covalent compounds are poor conductors of electricity 8
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Comparison of Ionic and Covalent Compounds • Formation of Compounds – Ionic compounds are formed between elements with rge differences in electronegativity large differences in electronegativity • Often a metal and a nonmetal – Covalent compounds are formed between elements ith similar electronegativities with similar electronegativities • Usually two or more nonmetals 9
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Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms • Lewis dot formulas or Lewis dot representations are a convenient bookkeeping method for tracking valence lectrons electrons .
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chapter7 - 7 Chemical Bonding Bonding Chapter Goals Chapter...

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