chapter9 - olecular Orbitals 9 Molecular Orbitals 1 hapter...

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Unformatted text preview: olecular Orbitals 9 Molecular Orbitals 1 hapter Outline Chapter Outline 1. Molecular Orbitals olecular Orbital Energy Level Diagrams 2. Molecular Orbital Energy Level Diagrams 3. Bond Order and Bond Stability 4. Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules eteronuclear Diatomic Molecules 5. Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules 6. Delocalization and the Shapes of Molecular Orbitals 2 olecular Orbital Theory Molecular Orbital Theory • Combination of atomic orbitals on different atoms forms molecular orbitals (MO’s) so that electrons in MO’s belong to the molecule as a whole. • Waves that describe atomic orbitals have both positive and negative phases or amplitudes. s MO’s are formed the phases can interact constructively or • As MO s are formed the phases can interact constructively or destructively. 3 olecular Orbitals Molecular Orbitals • There are two simple types of molecular orbitals that can be produced by the overlap of tomic orbitals atomic orbitals. 1. Head-on overlap of atomic orbitals produces σ igma) orbitals (sigma) orbitals. 2. Side-on overlap of atomic orbitals produces π (pi) orbitals. • Two 1s atomic orbitals that overlap produce two molecular orbitals designated as: 1. σ 1s or bonding molecular orbital 2. σ 1s * or antibonding molecular orbital. 4 olecular Orbitals Molecular Orbitals • Graphically these two orbitals look like this: 5 olecular Orbitals Molecular Orbitals • Energetically, the molecular orbitals split. 1. The σ 1s lies lower in energy. 2. The σ 1s * is higher in energy. 6 olecular Orbitals Molecular Orbitals • The head-on overlap of two corresponding p atomic orbitals on different atoms, say 2p x with 2p x produces: 1. bonding orbital ntibonding orbital * x 2p σ 2. antibonding orbital x 2p σ 7 olecular Orbitals Molecular Orbitals • Graphically, these orbitals look like this: 8 olecular Orbitals Molecular Orbitals • Side-on overlap of two corresponding p atomic orbitals on different atoms (say 2p y with 2p y or 2p z with 2p z ) produces: 1. or (both are bonding orbitals) y 2p π z 2p π 2. or (both are anti-bonding orbitals) y 2p * π z 2p * π 9 olecular Orbitals Molecular Orbitals • Graphically these orbitals look like this: 10 Molecular Orbital Energy Level Diagram • Now that we have seen what these MO’s look e and a little of their energetics how are the like and a little of their energetics, how are the orbitals filled with electrons?...
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This note was uploaded on 05/24/2011 for the course ENGINEERIN 1 taught by Professor Lee during the Spring '11 term at Sungkyunkwan.

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chapter9 - olecular Orbitals 9 Molecular Orbitals 1 hapter...

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