chapter10 - 10 10 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions I: Aqueous...

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0 Reactions in queous Solutions I: 10 Aqueous Solutions I: Acids, Bases & Salts
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HAPTER GOALS CHAPTER GOALS 1. Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases 2. The Arrhenius Theory . he Hydronium Ion (Hydrated Hydrogen Ion) 3. The Hydronium Ion (Hydrated Hydrogen Ion) 4. The Br Ø nsted-Lowry Theory 5. The Autoionization of Water 6. Amphoterism 7. Strengths of Acids 2
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HAPTER GOALS CHAPTER GOALS 8. Acid-Base Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 9. Acidic Salts and Basic Salts 10.The Lewis Theory 11.The Preparation of Acids e epa at o o c ds 3
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Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases Aqueous acidic solutions have the following properties: 1. They have a sour taste. hey change the colors of many 2. They change the colors of many indicators. cids turn blue litmus to red Acids turn blue litmus to red. – Acids turn bromothymol blue from blue to ellow yellow. 3. They react with metals to generate 4 hydrogen, H 2(g) . 2 Al(s) + 6HCl(aq) 3H 2 (g) + 2AlCl 3 (aq) See: Chapter 6
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Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases 4. They react with metal oxides and hydroxides to form salts and water. 5. They react with salts of weaker acids to rm the weaker acid and the salt of the form the weaker acid and the salt of the stronger acid. 6. Acidic aqueous solutions conduct lectricity. electricity. 5
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Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases Aqueous basic solutions have the following properties: 1. They have a bitter taste. 2. They have a slippery feeling. 3. They change the colors of many indicators Bases turn red litmus to blue. – Bases turn bromothymol blue from yellow to blue. 4. They react with acids to form salts and water. y 5. Aqueous basic solutions conduct electricity. 6
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he Arrhenius Theory The Arrhenius Theory • Svante Augustus Arrhenius first presented this theory of acids and bases in 1884. • Acids are substances that contain hydrogen and produce H + in aqueous solutions. • Two examples of substances that behave as Arrhenius acids: + - l Cl () ( ) + + + + + (aq) q) aq aq 3 ) ( 2 (aq) HCO O H O H H HCO Cl O H O H HCl l 7 ( ) 2(aq) aq 3 ) ( 2 (aq) 2 l
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he Arrhenius Theory The Arrhenius Theory • Bases are substances that contain the hydroxyl, OH, group and produce hydroxide ions, OH - , in aqueous solutions. • Two examples of substances that behave s Arrhenius bases: as Arrhenius bases: + + - OH Na NaOH ( ) ( ) + 2 aq aq H a a(OH) 8 ( ) ( ) + aq aq 2 OH 2 Ca Ca(OH)
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he Arrhenius Theory The Arrhenius Theory • Neutralization reactions are the combination of H + (or H 3 O + ) with OH - to form H 2 O. • Strong acids are acidic substances that ionize 100% in water. – List of aqueous strong acids: – HCl, HBr, HI, H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 , HClO 4 , HClO 3 trong bases are basic substances that ionize • Strong bases are basic substances that ionize 100% in water. ist of aqueous strong bases: – List of aqueous strong bases: – LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, a(OH) Sr(OH) Ba(OH) 9 Ca(OH) 2 , Sr(OH) 2 , Ba(OH) 2
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he Arrhenius Theory The Arrhenius Theory For the reaction of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide, a typical strong acid-strong base reaction, the formula unit, total ionic, and net ionic equations are: •Formula Unit Equation •Total Ionic •Net Ionic Equation 10
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This note was uploaded on 05/24/2011 for the course ENGINEERIN 1 taught by Professor Lee during the Spring '11 term at Sungkyunkwan.

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chapter10 - 10 10 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions I: Aqueous...

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