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2-Chemistry-updated - Outline Chemistry of Cells Periodic...

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1 1 Chemistry of Cells Dr. Dawson Biology 3, Fall 2010 San José State University 2 Outline Periodic table • Bonds Organic elements and functional groups Properties of water 3 Periodic Table Figure 2-7 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) 4 Figure 2-5 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) 5 Figure 2-4 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) 6 Outer shell determines bond • Silicon Atomic number is 14 It has 14 e- Shell 1 has 2 e- Shell 2 has 8 e- and Shell 3 has 4 e- How many e- does Silicon need to fill its outer shell? What is the similarity between Carbon and Silicon?
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2 7 Figure 2-6 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) 8 Ionic bonds Figure 2-8a Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Bond is the electrostatic attraction 9 Covalent bonds Figure 2-9 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Bond is the stability of attraction vs. repulsion Distance between molecules is critical 10 Electronegativity and Polarity H 2.2 (Pauling scale) • P 2.2 • C 2.5 • S 2.6 • N 3.0 • Cl 3.2 • O 3.4 11 Electronegativity and Polarity H (least) • C • N O (most) “Neighbors” form non-polar covalent bonds – Similar electroneg – Mostly equal sharing of e- – Hydrogen gas (H 2 ) – Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) – Hydrocarbons (CH 4 ) 12 Electronegativity and Polarity H (least) • C • N O (most) Polar covalent bonds – Inequal sharing of e- – Ammonia (NH 3 ) – Carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
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3 13 Electronegativity and Polarity Polar or non-polar???
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