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ch.1 notes - Ch 1 What is Statistics STATISTICS-The science...

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STATISTICS -The science of collecting, organizing, presenting, analyzing, and interpreting data to assist in making effective decisions. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS- Methods of organizing, summarizing, and presenting data in an informative way. INFERENTIAL STATISTICS- The methods used to estimate a property of a population on the basis of a sample. Types of Statistics: Descriptive, Inferential Qualitative - characteristic being studied is nonnumeric (attribute) Nominal level of measurement- observations of a qualitative variable can only be classified and counted. To summarize, the nominal-level data have the following properties : 1. The variable of interest is divided into categories or outcomes. 2. There is no natural order to the outcomes. Ordinal level of measurement (next higher level of data)- In summary the properties of the ordinal level of data are: 1. Data classifications are represented by sets of labels or names (high, medium, low) that have relative values. 2. Because of the relative values, the data classified can be ranked or ordered. Ie. gender, religious affiliation, type of automobile owned, state of birth, and eye color Quantitative - the variable studied can be reported numerically Discrete variables can assume only certain values, and there are “gaps” between the values.
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