The Realities of Modern ManufacturingGlobalization - Once underdeveloped countries (e.g., China, India, Mexico) are becoming major players in manufacturingInternational outsourcing - Parts and products once made in the United States by American companies are now being made offshore (overseas) or near-shore (in Mexico and Central America)Local outsourcing - Use of suppliers within the U.S. to provide parts and services
More Realities of Modern ManufacturingContract manufacturing - Companies that specialize in manufacturing entire products, not just parts, under contract to other companiesTrend toward the service sector in the U.S. economyQuality expectations - Customers, both consumer and corporate, demand products of the highest qualityNeed for operational efficiency - U.S. manufacturers must be efficient in in their operations to overcome the labor cost advantage of international competitors
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Modern Manufacturing Approaches and TechnologiesAutomation - automated equipment instead of laborMaterial handling technologies - because manufacturing usually involves a sequence of activitiesManufacturing systems - integration and coordination of multiple automated or manual workstationsFlexible manufacturing - to compete in the low-volume/high-mix product categoriesQuality programs - to achieve the high quality expected by today's customersCIM - to integrate design, production, and logisticsLean production - more work with fewer resources