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BSC_1010L_Meiosis2A - Meiosis Reproduction...

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Meiosis Reproduction Asexual (Vegetative) Reproduction A form of duplication using only mitosis. Example, a new plant grows out of the root or a shoot from an existing plant. Produces only genetically identical offspring since all divisions are by mitosis. 1. offspring called clones meaning that each is an exact copy of the original organism 2. this method of reproduction is rapid and effective allowing the spread of an organism 3. Since the offspring are identical, there is no mechanism for introducing diversity Sexual reproduction Formation of new individual by a combination of two haploid sex cells (gametes). Fertilization- combination of genetic information from two separate cells that have one half the original genetic information Gametes for fertilization usually come from separate parents 1. Female- produces an egg 2. Male produces sperm Both gametes are haploid, with a single set of chromosomes The new individual is called a zygote, with two sets of chromosomes (diploid). Meiosis is a process to convert a diploid cell to a haploid gamete, and cause a change in the genetic information to increase diversity in the offspring. TUTORIAL MITOSIS http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp09/0902001.html TUTORIAL MEIOSIS http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anisamples/majorsbiology/meiosis.html 1
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Chromosomes in a Diploid Cell Summary of chromosome characteristics Diploid set for humans; 2n = 46 Autosomes; homologous chromosomes, one from each parent (humans = 22 sets of 2) Sex chromosomes (humans have 1 set) 1. Female-sex chromosomes are homologous (XX) 2. Male-sex chromosomes are non-homologous (XY) Karyotyping During mitosis, the 23 pairs of human chromosomes condense and are visible with a light microscope. A karyotype analysis usually involves blocking cells in mitosis and staining the condensed chromosomes with Giemsa dye (G-banding). The dye stains regions of chromosomes that are rich in the base pairs o Adenine (A) and Thymine (T) producing a dark band. o
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BSC_1010L_Meiosis2A - Meiosis Reproduction...

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