Chapter 1.2 Lecture Notes

Chapter 1.2 Lecture Notes - Properties and Changes of...

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Unformatted text preview: Properties and Changes of Matter Matter And Measurement Properties of Matter •  Physical Properties: □  Must be observed without changing a compound/ element into another compound/element. •  Boiling point, density, mass, volume, etc. •  Chemical Properties: □  Can only be observed when a compound/element is changed into another compound/element. •  Flammability, corrosiveness, reactivity with acid, etc. Matter And Measurement Properties of Matter •  Intensive Properties: □  Independent of the amount of the matter that is present. •  Density, boiling point, color, etc. •  Extensive Properties: □  Dependent upon the amount of the matter present. •  Mass, volume, energy, etc. Matter And Measurement Changes of Matter •  Physical Changes: □  Changes in matter that do not change the composition of a substance. •  Changes of state, temperature, volume, etc. •  Chemical Changes: □  Changes that result in new substances. •  Combustion, oxidation, decomposition, etc. Matter And Measurement Chemical Reactions Matter In the course of a chemical reaction, the reacting And substances are converted to new substances.Measurement Compounds Compounds can be broken down into elements. Matter And Measurement Relative abundance of elements Matter And Measurement Acids Bases Pure elements Matter And Measurement Separation of Mixtures Matter And Measurement Filtration: Separates heterogeneous mixture, solid substances from liquids and solutions. Matter And Measurement Distillation: atter Separates homogeneous mixture of liquids MAnd Measurement on the basis of differences in boiling point. Chromatography: Separates homogeneous mixtures on the basis of differences in solubility in a solvent, or in binding to a solid matrix. Separation techniques were critical to the development of the basic theories of chemistry. Matter How do we know there are homogeneous mixtures? And Measurement We can separate them. Units of Measurement Matter And Measurement SI Units Learn! symbols and all! •  Système International d’Unités •  Uses a different base unit for each quantity Matter And Measurement Metric System Prefixes convert the base units into units that are appropriate for the item being measured. Learn! More important than it looks!!! Matter And Measurement Volume •  The most commonly used metric units for volume are the liter (L) and the milliliter (mL). □  A liter is a cube 1 dm (10 cm) long on each side. □  A milliliter is a cube 1 cm long on each side. Matter And Measurement Temperature: proportional to the average kinetic energy of the Matter particles in a sample. And Measurement 2 K.E. = 1/2mv ...
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