Chapter 6 Lecture Notes

Chapter 6 Lecture Notes - Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of...

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Electronic Structure of Atoms Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms
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Electronic Structure of Atoms Historical perspective Atomic spectra Bunsen, Kirchhoff, 1860 1st spectroscope 1st line spectrum Lockyer, 1868 He in solar system Balmer,1885 H line spectrum Quantum theory Plank,1900 Black body radiation Einstein, 1905 He in solar system Bohr, 1913 Applied to atom structure Quantum theory Dalton, 1803 atomic nature Faraday, 1834 electricity Thompson, 1807 electrons e/m Millikan, 1911 oil drop Rutherford, 1911 gold foil/nucleus
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Electronic Structure of Atoms Electro-magnetic radiation (light) • The nature of light light is a wave • The nature of waves What is a wave? What is waving?
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Electronic Structure of Atoms Waves Wave: some sort of periodic function something that periodicaly changes vs. time. wavelength ( ) : distance between equivalent points Amplitude: “height” wave, maximum displacement of periodic function.
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Electronic Structure of Atoms Waves • The number of waves passing a given point per unit of time is the frequency ( ) . • For waves traveling at the same velocity, the longer the wavelength, the smaller the frequency. Higher frequency shorter wavelength lower frequency longer wavelength
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Electronic Structure of Atoms Waves v = wavelength x frequency meters x (1/sec) = m/sec v = 
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Electronic Structure of Atoms Waves What is waving? water wave: water height Sound wave: air pressure Light? Major question:
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Electronic Structure of Atoms Light waves. • What is waving? Electric field, and perpendicular magnetic field.
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Electronic Structure of Atoms Electromagnetic Radiation All electromagnetic radiation travels the speed of light ( c ), 3.00 10 8 m/s. Therefore: c = 
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Electronic Structure of Atoms The tree mysteries of 19th century physics Mystery #1: Blackbody radiation Why does metal glow when heated? K.E. of electrons What light is given off?
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Electronic Structure of Atoms Mystery 1: Black body radiation Higher T leads to shorter wavelength of light More K.E., more E Must be relationship between E and wavelength He concluded that energy is quantized. It comes in packets (like fruit snacks) and is proportional to frequency: E = h where h is Planck’s constant, 6.63 10 −34 J-s. The minimum packet of E.
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Electronic Structure of Atoms What did Einstein get the Nobel Prize for?
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Electronic Structure of Atoms Mystery #2: The Photo-electric effect
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Electronic Structure of Atoms I K.E. e- current (#e - ) I K.E. e- current (#e - ) K. E. e - K. E. e - I high I low I high I low h What might you expect (from normal waves) what do you see?
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Electronic Structure of Atoms Einstein: Light is both a particle and a wave. E
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Chapter 6 Lecture Notes - Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of...

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