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16 Cell Cycle 1 - Cell Cycle Ch 12 pp.228-243 The...

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Cell Cycle Ch. 12 pp.228-243 “ The biological domain of the physical world has conservation principles of its own, operating within the larger ambit of the conservation principles of physics. The most general principle is that biological systems must reproduce themselves in order to sustain their very existence over long periods of time.” Daniel Mazia (embryologist, from The Cell , vol. III . 1961)
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A. The main topics include the stages, the processes and the regulation required to produce two genetically identical daughter cells. Terms: cell cycle = the life of the cell until it divides cell division = cell reproduction The basic common version is a stepwise alternation of ___________________________________ with continuous growth between divisions. I. General aspects of the cell cycle
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For prokaryotes this is done by binary fission (cell divides to make two halves) After growth, and chromosome ___________________ ___________________ __________ a cell wall forms between separated nucleoids. The DNA is circular. Fig. 12.11
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Picture 3 Bacterial exponential growth curve plotted w/o semi-log graph
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Typical “exponential growth curve” using semilog graph for cells inoculated in a nutrient culture. Time Cell number on y axis A doubling occurs each division cycle and so the increase in cell number is logarithmic. Phases: Lag Log Stationar y
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A problem to solve for bacterial cell division is that a cell can under very rich nutrient conditions divide as fast as every 20 minutes but DNA replication always takes 40 minutes. What might the bacterial cell do to solve this problem?
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For eukaryotes cell division includes: _____________ = when cell grows, DNA is replicated and the cell prepares for ________= which is division of the nucleus and _________ = which is division of the cell Picture 5 Note that interphase and mitosis have sub-phases From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell.
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B. Three problems associated with coordination of the cell cycle to the cell’s physiological conditions. 1. Growth, to double the cell mass) must be coordinated with cytokinesis to occur at the right time. Picture 5 From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell.
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2. Signals from nutrients, growth factors or adhesion molecules must have a role determining whether the cell will divide. Why would the differentiated animal body cells need to divide at different rates?
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