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4 Cell Communication Study Guide

4 Cell Communication Study Guide - Describe a hormone and...

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Study Guide Cell Signaling Vocabulary Ligand Signal transduction Paracrine signal Autocrine signal Yeast a and alpha cells A and α peptides Small amines (epinephrine) Plant growth regulators (auxin, gibberellic acid) Nitric oxide (NO) G protein-couple receptor Tyrosine kinase receptor Ion channel receptor Intracellular receptor G proteins Second messenger Cyclic AMP Adenylyl cyclase IP3 (inositol triphosphate) DAG (diacylglycerol) Scaffolding protein Epidermal growth factor Mitogen Ras protein MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase) 1. Describe the events in signal transduction pathways that occur at the plasma membrane. 2. What are the two main ways proteins are changed in response to a signal? 3. What are some examples of signal systems in lower eukaryotic cells? 4. What class of ligand are each of the following: epinephrine, hypothalamic hormones, insulin, estrogen, nitric oxide, auxin and tell something about their use. 5. Describe a paracrine signal and give an example.
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Unformatted text preview: Describe a hormone and give an example. 6. Describe the G-protein linked receptor system. Mention what binds the receptor and what happens to the receptor, whether the receptor is a kinase, how and when the G protein interacts, what is the role of the G protein and what are some signals used. 7. Compare the tyrosine receptor system to the G protein linked receptor system. 8. Describe an example of the gated ion-channel receptor system? 9. Compare the intracellular receptor system to the other systems and give an example. 10. What occurs in a protein kinase cascade and where does it occur in the signal transduction pathway? 11. Describe the following second messengers and how they act: cyclic AMP, calcium, inositol triphosphate. 12. What is the purpose of the following: (a) signal amplification and (b)scaffolding proteins? 13. Describe how a growth signal goes through the signal transduction pathway....
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