Study Guide 7 - Study Guide 7 Carbohydrates (Kopachik)...

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Study Guide 7 Carbohydrates (Kopachik) Terms to know: Carbohydrate Monosaccharide Polysaccharide Glycoprotein Glycolipid Triose Pentose Hexose Glycosidic bond alpha bond beta bond Starch Cellulose Glycogen Chitin peptidoglycan Main points: 1. Carbohydrates are polyhydroxylic aldoses or ketoses with the most common having 3, 5 or 6 Cs for the monosaccharides. Many isomeric forms can exist because of the many asymmetric carbons but relatively few are used (e.g. glucose and galactose are isomers). The 5,6 or 7 carbons in addition can exist as linear or ring structures. Glucose has either alpha or beta isomers in the ring form; this creates alpha or beta glycosidic bonds when polysaccharides are made. 2. Polysaccharides have monosaccharide monomers that are covalently linked through glycosidic bonds. The C1 forms alpha bonds with C4 in starch but beta bonds in cellulose; both are straight chain polymers but glycogen can be branched as well with alpha bonds to C6 and C3 and C4 carbons. Animals have various forms of the enzyme amylase which breaks the alpha, not the
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Study Guide 7 - Study Guide 7 Carbohydrates (Kopachik)...

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