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Study Guide 8-10 - Study Guides 8-10 Lipids(Kopachik Terms...

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Study Guides 8-10 Lipids (Kopachik) Terms to know: Lipid Triglyceride (triacylglycerol) Fatty acid Glycerol Ester bond Saturated fatty acid Unsaturated fatty acid Phospholipid Head Tail Amphipathic Micelle Bilayer cholesterol Fluid mosaic Integral protein Peripheral protein Fluidity Freeze fracture Plasma membrane Extracellular matrix Cell adhesion Cell recognition vesicle Selective permeability Channel protein Carrier protein Diffusion Passive transport Osmosis Hypertonic Hypotonic isotonic Facilitated diffusion Concentration gradient Active transport Bulk transport Endocytosis Pinocytosis Receptor-mediated endocytosis Aquaporin Ion channel Sodium-potassium pump
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Membrane potential Electrochemical gradient Electrogenic proton pump Endocytosis Phagocytosis Pinocytosis Coated pits Main points: 1. Lipids are a diverse class of non-polymeric molecules varying a lot in structure and function but all are lumped together because they are hydrophobic. Fats (triglycerides) made up of three fatty acids linked to glycerol with ester bonds are used for energy storage. Phospholipids which are amphipathic molecules consisting of a polar phosphate head and two nonpolar hydrocarbon tails are used for making membrane bilayers. Cholesterol is a multi-ring structure is also in membranes and is the structure from which the hormonal steroids, estrogen and testosterone are made. 2. The fatty acid structure is R-COOH where R is 14-18 C in length which could be saturated (no C=C) or unsaturated in either the cis or trans isomers. Unsaturated fatty acids in cis make a membrane more fluid because the tails cannot pack as tightly as for straighter saturated or trans fatty acids. 3. Phospholipids use their unique amphipathic structure to self-assemble into bilayers which are a large part of biological membranes. The head group ends are outside in the hydrophilic environment whereas the tails are inside in the hydrophilic environment.
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