4. Bayly Intro and Archaic Globalization

4. Bayly Intro and Archaic Globalization - IF:~ I...

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. 'it IF;\':~ " INTRODUCTION >':l~ --- <"~~:;-' The Mexican radicals had already received enthusiastic suppOrt fro .:~ Giuseppe Garibaldi and other revolutionaries who had been the heroes : .;~] the 1848 rebellioris against authority in Europe. l ! Here, common experience gave rise to a united front across the world. But, equally, exposure to globa~ :'::; changes could encourage literati, politicians, and ordinary people to stress difference rather than similarity. By the 1880s, the impact of Christian mis- .' sionaries and Western goods, for example, had made Indians, Arabs, and Chinese more aware of their distinctive religious practices, forms of physical dep~rtment, ~nd the excellence of their local artisans. In time, this sensibility.' of difference ItSelf also created further global links. Indian artists looked to their Japanese contemporaries as inheritors of a pure aesthetic tradition and incorporated their style into their own works. The aim throughout the book is to combine what might be called "lateral histoty" of this sort - the histoty of connections - with "vertical history," the history of the development of particular institutions and ideologies. Chapters 1, 2, 5, and the second half of the book, therefore, are more the~atic in approach. These chapters consider the great social concepts which have been used by historians, as they were by nineteenth-century writers and publicists, to characterize the dominant changes of the nineteenth centuty. Among these concepts, the rise of the modern state, science, industrialization, liberalism, science, and "religion" appear to be the most important. The· purpose of these chapters is to bring together material from a range of regional and national histories in order to demonstrate how these institutions and ideologies became rooted and empowered in different places and at different periods of time. They attempt to provide a histoty of connections and processes without retreating to a simple view of the diffusion outward of modernity from a dominant, "rational" European or American center. Here again, the book insists on the importance of the activity of colonized and semi-colonized non- European peoples, and of subordinated groups within European and American society inshaping the contemporary world order. So, for instance, the reconsti- tution of the European Roman Catholic hierarchy after 1870 was part of a much wider process of constructing "world religions" which was taking place in the Hindu, Confucian, and Buddhist worlds as much as the Christian. This is not just a matter of analogy, but of direct causation. Christian churches often began to cooperate and create new organizations at home precisely because they needed solidarity in overseas mission activity, where they found themselves under pressure from a revived Islam or other religious traditions spreading amongst their formally dependent subjects.
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This note was uploaded on 05/25/2011 for the course HIST 303 taught by Professor Salesa during the Fall '10 term at University of Michigan.

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4. Bayly Intro and Archaic Globalization - IF:~ I...

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