5. Modernity's Revolutions and Reforms

5. Modernity's Revolutions and Reforms - 5. Modernity’s...

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Unformatted text preview: 5. Modernity’s Revolutions and Reforms: The Midwives of Modern Sport. History 303 Sport in the Modern World Connecting the Reading to Sport 1.  What do these ‘global’ revolutions have to do with sport? 2.  Why did we read about Damiens the regicide & his horrifying torture? How does that relate to sport? 3.  What does modernity, or the Holocaust, have to do with sport? 1. What do these ‘global’ revolutions have to do with sport? French and Indian War   A beginning:   Ensured British supremacy in North America   Expensive   Removed a key ally for Native American opposition to British empire   Showed the exposed nature of empires Seven Years’ War A GLOBAL WAR A far flung, nearing global war, in South Asia, the Caribbean, and eastern North America. The American Revolution The Declaration of Independence, 1774   ‘We hold these truths to be self‐evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.’   But sharp limits as to who could claim these ‘universal’ rights. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789, 1793)   Déclaration des droits de l'Homme et du citoyen   Popular Sovereignty.   Universal rights.   ‘Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good.’   ‘Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good.’   Property is ‘an inviolable and sacred right.’   But some key groups and classes of people are missing? Haitian Revolution 1791‐1804   40,000 whites—local, and French‐born; half a million slaves, 30,000 gens de couleur.   Produced perhaps 40% of world sugar exports.   Gens de couleur insist on rights post‐revolution, but denied, even when legally allowed.   Massive slave rebellion in 1791.   Then war between France, Spain and Britain. Santo Domingue invaded. Slaves ally with invaders; but remainder freed.   Toussaint L’Ouverture leads the French response, successfully.   But the slaves were not freed. War begins again, independence proclaimed 1 January 1804.   European fears stoked:   Of the dangers of ‘universal rights’.   Of the dangers of white minority slave colonies Establishing New Political Communities   Massive changes in the last part of the 18th century in who had claims on rule and representation.   The decline or abolishing of the ‘landed’ or aristocratic classes.   But Britain seemed to be without revolution.   ‘The Glorious Revolution’?   ‘The Industrial Revolution’? ‘Industrial Revolution’   India integrated with the markets of Industry, and new forms of finance.   Embodied by mechanization and new forms of energy.   Steam engines   Steam locomotives   Particular machines, such as the Spinning Jenny, steam presses.   ‘Dark Satanic Mills’   Great proportion of production initially concentrated in Britain. Body/Person/Rights   The converging revolutions raised the possibility that all bodies might be persons of more or less equality.   With restrictions around race, gender, class, age.   That persons might:   Have ‘rights’   Own property   Vote or participate in politics.   That these bodies could be subject to states and empires, and not just overlords and sovereigns. From Sovereign to Popular Sovereignty   The revolutions remade polities and political classes.   In many cases sovereignty shifted from the sovereign, to the population: popular sovereignty.   That the political body might be the people, and people’s bodies, and not that of the sovereign. Modernity turned to the bodies of ordinary people as targets of power. 2. Why did we read about Damiens the regicide & his horrifying torture? How does that relate to sport? From Torture … … to Discipline … Or, in Sporting Terms … From Folk Football and ‘Premodern’ Games To Modern, Disciplined Sports Punishment   Torture as punishment (different from our vision of torture).   The infliction of pain as one of the purposes.   The body as the target of punishment: ‘corporal’.   Punishment as public and spectacle. Discipline   A change in objective.   A shift from pain to the ‘gentle way’: a new sensibility.   Made private and less visible.   Doesn’t target the body, but the ‘soul’, character, the self: ‘non‐corporal’.   Aimed at change or reform. Circling Back to Sport   Which of these regimes— ‘corporal punishment’ or ‘discipline’—is most like the one that characterizes modern sport?   Let us ask: What are the objects, the purposes, of modern sport—as we know they are not solely about ‘play’?   Which leads us to ask, about now, as about then: How is modern sport connected to the other phenomena of modernity? ‘The Junction Boys’ Coach Leach ‘Discipline’ (Manning and Herbstreit) Sites of Discipline   This practice of discipline is manifest in many modern locations:   Law enforcement and prisons   Classrooms and schools   Hospitals   Military   Sports fields   Factories and workplaces. 3. What does modernity have to do with sport? The Modern, Disciplinary State   Rational   Systems of management   Bureaucratic   Statistical   Uniform   Technocratic   Centralized   How does it approach the problem of the body? Of people? Managers   Next class we’ll think more about discipline.   But for today, note the centrality of managers to modernity.   What is a manager? What do they do?   Who were the ‘managers’ before? A Shared Culture of Management?   Governments and rulers acted in very local, different ways for most of our shared history.   But the convergence of revolutions also converged many (though far from all) governing, managing, and official practices. Increasing Elite Uniformity Togo Heihachiro ‘Keio Boys at Base‐ball’ 1911 Rene Magritte, ‘Son of Man’ (1964) Managers … ‘The Other Face of Modernity’   It is tempting to see brutality and savagery as abberations, as remnants of premodernity or due to ‘savage’ instincts.   Rational, organized, disciplined and concentrated modern techniques were efficacious, but not intrinsically ‘good’.   Consequently, modernity ushered in its own violences and terrors: but on a scale never before achievable. From Bauman, Sociology after the Holocaust.   Modernity was morally neutral: a capacity and system of techniques The Moral Neutrality of Sport Modern sport, too, like other modern techniques, is morally neutral: available for different enactments and meanings. The Game of the Continental Army?   Modern sport, also, is morally neutral. Available for different and competing parties.   Example: both the British and Continental armies played cricket.   Washington both played, and encouraged playing, cricket. Holding the Modern Sport Apparatus in View   We need to keep in view:   The ways in which modern sport is quintessentially modern.   The multiple histories of modernity: slavery and freedom, wealth and poverty, humanity and savagery.   the complex of relations that made sport both possible and significant. Race   ‘… these new sober, polite societies were often more blindly racist …’ Plan   Global War: French and Indian   Industrial Revolution   Enlightenment   Standards and measures   Medical   The Financial Revolution/ Capitalism   Sovereign to Popular Sovereignty   Piety/Evangelicalism   Bourgeois/Middle class   French Revolution   From Polo to Cricket   The Forming of the Modern State   Financial Revolution   From Punishment to Discipline ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/25/2011 for the course HIST 303 taught by Professor Salesa during the Fall '10 term at University of Michigan.

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