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Unformatted text preview: 5. Modernity’s Revolutions and Reforms: The Midwives of Modern Sport. History 303 Sport in the Modern World Connecting the Reading to Sport 1. What do these ‘global’ revolutions have to do with sport? 2. Why did we read about Damiens the regicide & his horrifying torture? How does that relate to sport? 3. What does modernity, or the Holocaust, have to do with sport? 1. What do these ‘global’ revolutions have to do with sport? French and Indian War A beginning: Ensured British supremacy in North America Expensive Removed a key ally for Native American opposition to British empire Showed the exposed nature of empires Seven Years’ War A GLOBAL WAR A far ﬂung, nearing global war, in South Asia, the Caribbean, and eastern North America. The American Revolution The Declaration of Independence, 1774 ‘We hold these truths to be self‐evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.’ But sharp limits as to who could claim these ‘universal’ rights. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789, 1793) Déclaration des droits de l'Homme et du citoyen Popular Sovereignty. Universal rights. ‘Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good.’ ‘Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good.’ Property is ‘an inviolable and sacred right.’ But some key groups and classes of people are missing? Haitian Revolution 1791‐1804 40,000 whites—local, and French‐born; half a million slaves, 30,000 gens de couleur. Produced perhaps 40% of world sugar exports. Gens de couleur insist on rights post‐revolution, but denied, even when legally allowed. Massive slave rebellion in 1791. Then war between France, Spain and Britain. Santo Domingue invaded. Slaves ally with invaders; but remainder freed. Toussaint L’Ouverture leads the French response, successfully. But the slaves were not freed. War begins again, independence proclaimed 1 January 1804. European fears stoked: Of the dangers of ‘universal rights’. Of the dangers of white minority slave colonies Establishing New Political Communities Massive changes in the last part of the 18th century in who had claims on rule and representation. The decline or abolishing of the ‘landed’ or aristocratic classes. But Britain seemed to be without revolution. ‘The Glorious Revolution’? ‘The Industrial Revolution’? ‘Industrial Revolution’ India integrated with the markets of Industry, and new forms of ﬁnance. Embodied by mechanization and new forms of energy. Steam engines Steam locomotives Particular machines, such as the Spinning Jenny, steam presses. ‘Dark Satanic Mills’ Great proportion of production initially concentrated in Britain. Body/Person/Rights The converging revolutions raised the possibility that all bodies might be persons of more or less equality. With restrictions around race, gender, class, age. That persons might: Have ‘rights’ Own property Vote or participate in politics. That these bodies could be subject to states and empires, and not just overlords and sovereigns. From Sovereign to Popular Sovereignty The revolutions remade polities and political classes. In many cases sovereignty shifted from the sovereign, to the population: popular sovereignty. That the political body might be the people, and people’s bodies, and not that of the sovereign. Modernity turned to the bodies of ordinary people as targets of power. 2. Why did we read about Damiens the regicide & his horrifying torture? How does that relate to sport? From Torture … … to Discipline … Or, in Sporting Terms … From Folk Football and ‘Premodern’ Games To Modern, Disciplined Sports Punishment Torture as punishment (diﬀerent from our vision of torture). The inﬂiction of pain as one of the purposes. The body as the target of punishment: ‘corporal’. Punishment as public and spectacle. Discipline A change in objective. A shift from pain to the ‘gentle way’: a new sensibility. Made private and less visible. Doesn’t target the body, but the ‘soul’, character, the self: ‘non‐corporal’. Aimed at change or reform. Circling Back to Sport Which of these regimes— ‘corporal punishment’ or ‘discipline’—is most like the one that characterizes modern sport? Let us ask: What are the objects, the purposes, of modern sport—as we know they are not solely about ‘play’? Which leads us to ask, about now, as about then: How is modern sport connected to the other phenomena of modernity? ‘The Junction Boys’ Coach Leach ‘Discipline’ (Manning and Herbstreit) Sites of Discipline This practice of discipline is manifest in many modern locations: Law enforcement and prisons Classrooms and schools Hospitals Military Sports ﬁelds Factories and workplaces. 3. What does modernity have to do with sport? The Modern, Disciplinary State Rational Systems of management Bureaucratic Statistical Uniform Technocratic Centralized How does it approach the problem of the body? Of people? Managers Next class we’ll think more about discipline. But for today, note the centrality of managers to modernity. What is a manager? What do they do? Who were the ‘managers’ before? A Shared Culture of Management? Governments and rulers acted in very local, diﬀerent ways for most of our shared history. But the convergence of revolutions also converged many (though far from all) governing, managing, and oﬃcial practices. Increasing Elite Uniformity Togo Heihachiro ‘Keio Boys at Base‐ball’ 1911 Rene Magritte, ‘Son of Man’ (1964) Managers … ‘The Other Face of Modernity’ It is tempting to see brutality and savagery as abberations, as remnants of premodernity or due to ‘savage’ instincts. Rational, organized, disciplined and concentrated modern techniques were eﬃcacious, but not intrinsically ‘good’. Consequently, modernity ushered in its own violences and terrors: but on a scale never before achievable. From Bauman, Sociology after the Holocaust. Modernity was morally neutral: a capacity and system of techniques The Moral Neutrality of Sport Modern sport, too, like other modern techniques, is morally neutral: available for diﬀerent enactments and meanings. The Game of the Continental Army? Modern sport, also, is morally neutral. Available for diﬀerent and competing parties. Example: both the British and Continental armies played cricket. Washington both played, and encouraged playing, cricket. Holding the Modern Sport Apparatus in View We need to keep in view: The ways in which modern sport is quintessentially modern. The multiple histories of modernity: slavery and freedom, wealth and poverty, humanity and savagery. the complex of relations that made sport both possible and signiﬁcant. Race ‘… these new sober, polite societies were often more blindly racist …’ Plan Global War: French and Indian Industrial Revolution Enlightenment Standards and measures Medical The Financial Revolution/
Capitalism Sovereign to Popular Sovereignty Piety/Evangelicalism Bourgeois/Middle class French Revolution From Polo to Cricket The Forming of the Modern State Financial Revolution From Punishment to Discipline ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/25/2011 for the course HIST 303 taught by Professor Salesa during the Fall '10 term at University of Michigan.
- Fall '10