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Unformatted text preview: 25. The Empire of Michael Jordan: Swoosh v. Stripes Sport in the Modern World Industrial Competition Nike v. Adidas A corporate competition where the battle is over YOU. Your preferences and habits. Driven by the understanding that you can be changed. Your mind and preferences can be changed, with the right strategies and resources. The Multinational Sports Corporation Multinational corporations are not new, but the sports corporations diﬀer from earlier ones: Previously, based on either natural resources like oil, or manufactured goods, like steel. Increasingly based on knowledge, services, or technique. Even U.S. corp’s increasingly less dependent on the U.S. market for proﬁt. Increasingly mobilize the media and advertise. By the 1980s, corporations no longer accountable solely, or primarily, to U.S. government. Agglomeration Nike Adidas Nike Golf, Air Jordan, Nike Skateboarding Reebok (2005) Subsidiaries: Rockport
Converse (2003) Bauer/Nike Bauer Cole Haan Hurley Umbro TaylorMade Salomon Maxﬂi Also see PPR, the holding company that owns Puma: also owns Gucci et al. Class Survey Results Most popular brand? Least popular brand (I would never wear …)? Favorite team/franchise? How much extra would you pay for your favorite brand/
team? NEXT: Most popular brand? Most popular brand? Most Popular Brand Nike Adidas Under Armor Puma Quicksilver Northface NEXT: Least popular brand (I would never wear …)? Least popular brand (I would never wear …)? Favorite team/franchise? Favorite Team 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Favorite Team How Much Would Extra Would You Pay? Brand Tax 15 10 5 Brand Tax 0 $0‐10 $11‐20 $21‐30 $31‐40 Brand Tax $41‐50 $51+ The Power of Advertising Marketing, Public Relations, Advertising seem to traﬃc in a new kind of power. It is not coercive, like the police or courts, forcing or preventing people from doing something. Rather, it seems to be based on making people want to do something. It is based, we might say, on desire. An Economy of Desire? The capacity to shape what people want conditions their ‘free will’. This oﬀers possibilities to reach beyond political or cultural borders and shape people’s desires. Sport oﬀers a very powerful way of accessing these possibilities. Infographic describing McDonald’s Europe’s new strategy. What/who do I want to be? The electronic media are a privileged forum for these new kinds of power/
inﬂuence. Lets watch a few well known advertisements and think about how they are shaping what we are supposed to want, and want to be: desire.
Masculinity/femininity Body types Ideologies and culture Who we should desire, and how to be desirable. Endorsements The largest sums in sports are now earned through endorsements. These are based on diﬀerent criteria to success in particular codes. Compare Oscar Robertson with Michael Jordan. 1985 Jordan’s ﬁrst contract with Wilson, then with Nike. Larry Bird, Isiah Thomas and Magic Johnson then all endorse Converse. Kareem, 1982: Adidas, $100,000 Worthy, 1982: NB, 1.2m 1987: Jordan guaranteed 18m, plus royalties. Nike crafts a deliberate break with convention, crafting the object and ‘campaign’ around an individual. ‘Vertical Integration’ Phil Knight aimed to ‘vertically integrate’ sports: As Standard Oil had: exploration, drilling, reﬁning and selling gas. Nike signed players. Then schools, ﬁrst Univ. of Miami, 1989. Global advertising: ﬁrst globally coordinated advertising campaign. The Power of Sport Sports business, as with other businesses after the 1980s, transcended the national frames it had long operated in. Now sporting ﬁgures could advance the strategies of companies and corporations: Tiger Woods Manchester United Michigan Football This utility could be achieved with new means that, like capital, was diﬃcult to contain in state borders and regulations. ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/25/2011 for the course HIST 303 taught by Professor Salesa during the Fall '10 term at University of Michigan.
- Fall '10