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Unformatted text preview: 26. Sport and Globalization Sport in the Modern World Globalization A deeply contested and widely used term. ‘the twofold process of the particularization of the universal and the universalization of the particular.’ (Robertson) But this is always incomplete. It is commonly contested. At stake is power: which local is universal? Who controls the means? (In the Ritzer piece we read: Glocal: ‘the integration of the global and the local’ Grobal: when the global overwhelms the local.) Critical Globalization Globalization is an attempt to think about the apparent intensiﬁcation of connections between people and places, why this happens, and what it means. Many agree that it hinges on two fundamental developments: 1. An enlargement of world communication. 2. The expansion of the horizons of markets. Telstar 1, 1962 Sport and ‘the Global’ But, how new is the problem of ‘the global’?
But, we have seen sports spread for centuries:
Multinational corporations exist since at least the 1600s. Think, e.g., empire. But they were governable by individual nations. Polo and cricket, f.i. But these were connected with the spread of institutions and cultures, not communication and markets/
commodities. But: how ‘global’ is the world, really: Many, perhaps most people in the world don’t have tvs, indoor plumbing, electricity or an interest in Kobe Bryant. Most global phenomena have to adapt to new regions, markets and cultures. Mega Egg The Meaning of Global Sports If everyone shares the ‘same’ sports, what does that signify? A ‘natural’ or modern growing uniformity? An overwhelming of the local? Diﬀerent iterations of the same code: ‘indigenization’, or the sport is not the same? A symptom of expanding markets and media saturation? A discovery of existing commonalities? A minor adjunct to distinctive and disconnected lives? Iranian Debut, U-19 World Cup American Football U.S. businesses, organizations and individuals have long tried to spread the game, but with little success. Most ambitiously, NFL Europe: 1991‐2007 (called World League until 1995). But, though few have come to play American Football outside U.S. territory, the numbers watching have boomed. Spectators can consume just as easily from London or Frankfurt as from Bloomﬁeld Hills. London, Sept/Oct 2007 NY Giants v. Miami Dolphins Celtics v. Timberwolves LA Kings v. Anaheim Ducks "You can play the music and buy the CD, but the band has to tour occasionally," (David Stern) NFL is aiming for double digit percentage point earnings from outside the U.S. Baseball Baseball is played far more widely, and has been for decades. It is the national sport of many South American and Caribbean nations. But it has not had as much success in entering European and other wealthy markets. Cricket and the Global Cricket: in the last twenty ﬁve years international cricket has adopted two new forms: Originally, 5 day games, ‘tests’ commonly resulting in draws. In white dress. Since 1971, one day games, or ‘limited over’ cricket, with a set number of deliveries (cf. ‘pitches’, usually 50 overs or 300).
In colored dress, rowdier crowds, always has a winner and loser. 8‐10 hours. Since 2002, Twenty20 cricket, with 20 overs, special rules to encourage ‘big hitting’. Approx 3.5 hours, very television friendly. The fortunes of cricket globally have varied:
Cricket in Caribbean has become less popular. Cricket in North America has become more popular, a fast growing sport: Driven by migration from South Asia and the Caribbean West Indian Cricket Cricket held together the English speaking Caribbean together as it was decolonized after WW2. In the 1950s and 1960s the West Indian team changed hands from white to black players. Just as their nations changed hands. This was cricket in a distinctive style, rooted in the Caribbean. Documented in the great book by C.L.R. James, Beyond a Boundary. Yet, in the last decade cricket has become less popular, while basketball and football have gained ground. IPL The T20 form of cricket has now been used in a 10 franchise professional league in India. Already the value of the league is at $4.13bn. Per individual, second only to the NBA in salaries. (Over $3m average per season). IPL Innovations The IPL adopted many forms strange or new to cricket: An auction, or draft. ‘Franchise’. Rationalized market segments. Formal team names. Cheerleaders (for a moment). Television driven revenues: Sony and a Singapore company spend $1.018bn. ‘Highlights’ Just Do It (Cricket) Adidas and Sachin Appropriation and Indigenization? Surﬁng The trajectory of surﬁng helps mark out the familiar progress of sport: 1. Begins as a local (Hawaiian) recreation among ali’i (chiefs): last millennia. Becomes more popular, mass cultural after the 1870s. Begins spreading to locations (California, Australia, South Africa): 1920s. Formal competitions, uniformities and codiﬁcation: 1940s‐. New opportunities for the excluded: women, minorities, poor, marginal places: 1980s‐. Commercialization: 1960s: 2.
6. Businesses emerge: gear, apparel, tourism, culture. Orientation towards media: print, television. Corporatization (large scale capitalization, multinational, advertising). Political Struggles: over resources; ownership; access and participation; the morality or meaning of surﬁng; social costs. ‘Soul Surﬁng’, ‘tourism’, ‘Local’, Surﬁng the Globe Other Sports Recently Codiﬁed and Corporatized X Games What’s Next This of codiﬁcation and commercialization is a process that seems familiar, and to repeat, yet is now driven by diﬀerent imperatives. ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/25/2011 for the course HIST 303 taught by Professor Salesa during the Fall '10 term at University of Michigan.
- Fall '10