BIOANLAB Instructor's Manual Ch 15.doc - Instructoru2019s...

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Instructor’s ManualLab 15 The Australopithecines and Early Members of the Genus HomoCladogram of Australopithecines and the Homo Genus. This cladogram shows the possible relationships among the species discussed in Lab 15. It is provided as a synthesis of the material presented in this lab. You may share it with your students, or you may use an alternate interpretation of your choosing. Answers to Lab 15 Concept Review Questions1. A. 4 mya to 1 myais when the australopithecines lived (not 7 mya to 4.4 mya, 2.5 mya to 1 mya, or 4 mya to 2.5 mya).IM15-1
2. The fossil individual nicknamed Lucy was B. a habitual biped(not a typical robust australopithecine, unusually tall, or alive around 2 mya).3. Two East African australopithecines are any two of the following: Australopithecus anamensis, Au. aethiopicus, Au. afarensis, Au. garhi, Au. boisei4. Two South African australopithecines are any two of the following:Au. africanus, Au. robustus, Au. sediba5. The oldest australopithecine is D.Australopithecus anamensis(not Australopithecus afarensis, Au. garhi, or Au. africanus).6. True; some researchers doargue the robust australopithecines should be classified in a separate genus called Paranthropus.7. B. Australopithecus (Paranthropus)aethiopicusis the species that lived around 2.5 mya in eastern Africa and had a small cranial capacity (around 410 cc), large molars, large zygomatic arches, and a sagittal crest (not Australopithecus afarensis, Homo habilis, or Au. garhi).8. Descriptions of the two tool forms associated with the Oldowan tool industry follow:Chopper: stone with flakes removed, used for heavy tasks like choppingFlake: small pieces of stone removed from larger stone, used for fine cutting, etc.9. C. Australopithecus garhi, based on evidence from Gona, Ethiopia, may be the first stone tooluser (not Homo habilis, Australopithecus africanus, or Australopithecus(Paranthropus) boisei).10. Description of one feature that decreases in size between the australopithecines and early members of the Homo genus is any one of the following: Teeth (especially premolars and molars) decrease in size; the mandible and zygomatic arches decrease in size and robusticity; the sagittal crest is lostIM15-2
Answers to Lab 15 ExercisesExercise 1: Australopithecine Variation 1 (5 to 10 minutes) For this exercise, you could use your own materials to supplement or replace the images provided of (A) Au. africanus and (B) Au. aethiopicus crania.1. Which of these mystery australopithecines is a later, more robust form?

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