07. Defects

07. Defects - D.K. Schroder, Semiconductor Characterization...

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Unformatted text preview: D.K. Schroder, Semiconductor Characterization Defects Types of Defects Defect Etching Generation Recombination Capacitance Transients Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy D.K. Schroder, Semiconductor Characterization Defects and Yield Interstitial Oxygen Vacancies Self Interstitials Metal Impurities Recombination Centers Metal Precipitates Dislocations Stacking Faults Precipitates DRAM Refresh Failures Leaky Junctions Oxide Breakdown Bipolar Trans. Pipes Yield $ D.K. Schroder, Semiconductor Characterization Wafer Defects Bulk Si Oxygen Particles, Scratches Metals Dopants Metals Roughness COPs t Denuded Layer Precipitated Substrate Precipitates Denuded Si Epi Layer Heavily Doped Substrate t x x Defects Epitaxial Si COPs (Crystal Originated Pits) D.K. Schroder, Semiconductor Characterization Defect Types Particles Residues Organics Light Metals Alkali Metals, e.g. , Na Metals Cu*, Fe*, Cr*, Ni*, Zn, Ca, Al (* Most important?) Crystal Originated Pits (COPs) Surface Roughness D.K. Schroder, Semiconductor Characterization Defect Sources Silicon Starting Material Silicon Growth Wafer Sawing, Polishing Wafer Packaging, Shipping Wafer Cleaning Liquids, Gases Oxidation, Diffusion Photoresist Ion Implantation Sputter Deposition Process Equipment Epitaxial Growth Reactive Ion Etching Polymer Containers/Pipes Door Hinges Light Switches Ball Bearings People D.K. Schroder, Semiconductor Characterization Point Defects D.K. Schroder, Semiconductor Characterization Line, Plane, Volume Defects D.K. Schroder, Semiconductor Characterization Stacking Faults Oxidation-induced SFs: Si interstitials are generated during oxidation and forced into the substrate SFs can also be generated at substrate/epi interfaces Si Oxide Si Interstitials Atom planes (111) Si (100) Si Top View SF in GaAsN D.K. Schroder, Semiconductor Characterization Defect Etching Certain etches attack defective regions allowing defect identification (etch recipes given at end of notes) D.C. Miller and G.A. Rozgonyi, Defect Characterization by Etching, Optical Microscopy, and X-Ray Topography, in Handbook on Semiconductors 3 (S.P. Keller, ed.) North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980, 217-246. ASTM Standards F47 and F26, 1997 Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Am. Soc. Test. Mat., West Conshohocken, PA, 1997. D.K. Schroder, Semiconductor Characterization Defect Etching Different etches attack defective regions differently Can be accentuated through copper decoration Secco Wright A Defects: HF+HNO 3 A Defects: HF+HNO 3 +H 3 PO 4 A Defects - Interstitials Secco Wright HF+HNO 3 HF+HNO 3 +H 3 PO 4 1.25 mm D Defects - Vacancies Micrographs courtesy of M.S. Kulkarni, MEMC ( J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, G153, Feb. 2002 ) D.K. Schroder, Semiconductor Characterization Defect Etch References [1] E. Sirtl and A. Adler, Chromic Acid-Hydrofluoric Acid as Specific Reagents for the [1] E....
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07. Defects - D.K. Schroder, Semiconductor Characterization...

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