ISP 221 Notes(Final) - ISP221Notes 03:37 age1 P...

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ISP 221 Notes 03:37 Page 1     Geothermal Energy -originates within the structure of the earth; later surfaces -earth, Sun and planets coalesced from a nebula cloud of dust revolving in space -matter spun into a thin disk -matter accretes into larger lumps -energy of impact => heat energy -energy from impacts and fission => molten earth -heavier materials down; lighter up => “layers” -core: iron and nickel – solid and molten Three main parts of earth:  Crust, Mantle, and Core (outside in) temperature and pressure increase with depth in Mantle - mesosphere:  hot but stronger due to high pressure - asthenosphere:  hot, weak, plastic - lithosphere:  cool, rigid, brittle a solid when heated loses strength a solid when compressed gains strength
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- continental crust:  thicker, (granite…) lower density - oceanic crust:  thinner, (basalt…) higher density heat in earth rises in a similar motion as hot water boiling in a pot Core at about 6000 degrees K -heat energy moves upward by convection and conduction -slow convection currents in the mantle bring heat energy upward -lithosphere is heated y convection from below, transfers heat by conduction  upward -lithosphere is cool and brittle; fractured into several tectonic plates -these plates move slowly relative to one another.. three basic movements Interactions of Tectonic Plates - divergent margins  or spreading centers – two plates move apart and new  material added to lithosphere - convergent margins  – two plates moving toward one another, in contact.  Oceanic crust will eventually be subsumed by continental crust - transform fault margins  – two plates moving by one another Page 2     4/11/11 Photosynthesis -energy gateway <1%
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-plants capture solar energy and store it in the bonds of simple sugars CH20 + O2 CO2 + H20 + Energy -radiant energy from the sun photosynthesis (plants) oxidation of glucose  (animals) cellular work by humans and other animals -chemical PE stored in carbon-rich food molecules, including glucose -vascular system (located in trunk of trees) photosynthetic pigments: Chlorophyll Carotenoids -complex molecules -there is very little photosynthesis activity involving yellow and green wavelengths -8-10 photons must be captured for each O2 molecule released ad each CO2  molecule absorbed and converted -photosynthesis and respiration act like opposites plants utilize some of the sugars for life processes respiration breaks down the bonds of simple sugars and releases energy -animals consume plants or other animals Page 3     Ecology
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-the study of the relationship between organisms and the environment-the flow of   energy and matter within the Biosphere
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