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KANT, RIGHTS, RAWLS, NOZICK 1. I.KANT The categorical imperative: The first formulation (universalizability): ‘Act always in such a way that you could wish that the maxim of your behaviour could become a universal law’ Compare with the golden rule: ‘Do unto others as you would have them unto you’ The second formulation ( respect for persons):’ Act in such a way that you can always treat humanity , whether in your own person or the person of another , never simply as a means , but always at the same time as an end.’ 2. RIGHTS Legal rights versus moral rights Rights and the fundamental political inviolability of persons. Rights as claims against others. Rights generate duties. Person A has a right to X against B in virtue of Y Negative rights versus positive rights. Negative rights: rights to non-interference (‘cheap’ rights ) Positive rights : welfare rights (‘expensive’ rights)
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Unformatted text preview: ‘Manifesto’ rights (aspirations) 3.JOHN RAWLS , A Theory of Justice (1971) The social contract tradition. The theory of justice as fairness. The original position. The veil of ignorance and its role. Two principles of justice: (1) The principle of liberty( Requires the greatest equal liberty compatible with a like liberty for all ) (2) The difference principle (Requires the maximisation of the position of the worst off) Rawls as a champion of the welfare state 4.ROBERT NOZICK , Anarchy, State and Utopia (1974) Libertarianism. Liberty as a chief value. Laissez-faire, minimal state, the right to self-ownership. The right to property acquired by: a. initial acquisition, b. voluntary transfer c. rectification. Nozick’s opposition to redistributive taxation....
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