UTILITARIANISM

UTILITARIANISM - I. UTILITARIANISM Jeremy Bentham...

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I. UTILITARIANISM Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation John Stuart Mill (1808-1873 ), Utilitarianism Some contemporary utilitarians: Karl Popper, J.J.C. Smart, Peter Singer, John Harsanyi What matters morally is the consequences of actions, in particular how much good they produce. The principle of utility : An action is right when it tends to maximise happiness (pleasure, utility, welfare, satisfaction of preferences) ACT-utilitarianism is the view that the rightness or wrongness of an action is to be judged by the consequences, good, or bad of the action itself. RULE-utilitarianism is the view that the rightness or wrongness of an action is to be judged by the goodness or badness of the consequences of a rule that everyone should perform the action in like circumstances. TOTAL utilitarianism: one ought to maximise the total happiness (utility) in the world AVERAGE utilitarianism: one ought to maximise happiness( utility) per head NEGATIVE utilitarianism - one ought to minimise unhappiness or disutility ( Karl
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UTILITARIANISM - I. UTILITARIANISM Jeremy Bentham...

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