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BSC12_StdyGde_I - Chapter25Objectives 1. 2..Explainwhich...

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BSC1011 Study Guide I                                             Spring 2006 Chapter 25 Objectives   Phylogenies are Based on Common Ancestries   1. Distinguish between phylogeny and systematics.  2. Describe the process of sedimentation and the formation of fossils. Explain which  portions of organisms are most likely to fossilize.  3. Explain why it is crucial to distinguish between homology and analogy before selecting  characters to use in the reconstruction of phylogeny.  4. Explain why bird and bat wings are homologous as vertebrate forelimbs but  analogous as wings.  5. Define  molecular systematics.  Explain some of the problems that systematists may  face in carrying out molecular comparisons of nucleic acids.  Phylogenetic Systematics: Connecting Classification with Evolutionary History   6. Explain the following characteristics of the Linnaean system of classification: a. binomial nomenclature b. hierarchical classification  7. List the major taxonomic categories from most to least inclusive.  8. Define a  clade.  Distinguish between a monophyletic clade and paraphyletic and  polyphyletic groupings of species.  9. Distinguish between shared primitive characters and shared derived characters.  10. Explain how shared derived characters can be used to construct a phylogenetic  diagram.  11. Explain how outgroup comparison can be used to distinguish between shared  primitive characters and shared derived characters.  12. Define an  ingroup.   13. Distinguish between a phylogram and an ultrameric tree.  14. Discuss how systematists use the principles of maximum parsimony and maximum  likelihood in reconstructing phylogenies.  15. Explain why any phylogenetic diagram represents a hypothesis about evolutionary  relationships among organisms.  16. Distinguish between orthologous and paralogous genes. Explain how gene  duplication has led to families of paralogous genes.  17. Explain how molecular clocks are used to determine the approximate time of key 
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evolutionary events. Explain how molecular clocks are calibrated in actual time. 
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